Spain ethnic groups percentages: Spain Demographics Profile

Largest Ethnic Minorities In Spain

People walk the street of Barcelona, Spain. Editorial credit: Valeri Potapova / Shutterstock.com.

Spain is a European country with a population of 46.4 million. Approximately 89.9% of the population is of Spanish ethnicity, and 10.1% are of a foreign ethnicity. Many of these ethnic minorities have recently come to Spain during a period of increased immigration. Others have been in the country for several generations. This article takes a look at some of the largest ethnic minorities in Spain.

Romanians

Two groups are tied as the largest ethnic minority groups in Spain, those being Romanians and Moroccans. They each make up 1.7% of the population. Most Romanians came to Spain from Romania, an eastern European country, in search of economic opportunity. By 2010, the population had reached 900,000. In 2011, the prime minister extended a ban on the free movement of the Romanian people in order to prevent them from coming to Spain for work. The ban did not apply to documented Romanian immigrants. This political move was in response to an already high unemployment rate in the country. By 2012 and with the economic crisis in full effect, many Romanians fled the country. Today, the population estimate is at 730,340.

Moroccans

Spain once had an open-door immigration policy with Morocco. A such, Moroccan citizens did not require a visa to enter the country. Many Moroccans came for seasonal work, particularly in agriculture and industry. That relationship changed, however, in 1985 when Spain implemented a new visa law. The new law was strict and did not offer a plan for permanent residence. The population of documented Moroccans was 752,695 in 2008. Greatly concerned over their stagnating economy, in September of the same year the Spanish government offered financial compensation to unemployed immigrants if they would cancel their residency and leave the country. The policy was unsuccessful and rather than decrease, the Moroccan population had actually increased 8.8% by 2011.

Ecuadorians

People of Ecuadorian ethnicity make up 0.7% of the Spanish population. After the Latin American Debt Crisis of the 1980’s, and another financial crisis in Ecuador during the 1990’s, mass numbers of Ecuadorians sought economic refuge in Spain. In 1998, the country had less than 10,000 immigrants from Ecuador. This number increased to 200,000 by 2002 and 500,000 by 2005. Desperate for opportunity, many of the immigrants arrived on tourist visas which they overstayed, looking for work. With such a large number of undocumented immigrants, Spain decided to offer them amnesty. In 2004 and 2005, approximately 140,000 Ecuadorians documented their presence.

White British

In 2006, estimates suggested that 5.5 million British nationals were living overseas. Approximately 751,000 of them are living in Spain, making up 0.7% of the population there. British migration to Spain increased substantially after 1990. The recent vote for Britain to leave the European Union, known in popular culture as the Brexit, left some British immigrants worried for their futures in Spain. Those fears have been calmed by the Vienna Convention of 1969 which protects them with a “grandfathered in” status, meaning they would not lose their previous residency rights.

Other ethnic minorities living in Spain include Colombians, comprising 0.5% of the Spanish population, followed by Bolivians (0.4%), Italians (0.4%), and Chinese (0.4%).

Rank Minority Ethnic Groups in Spain Share of Total Population in Spain
1 Romanians 1.7%
2 Moroccans 1.7%
3 Ecuadorians 0.7%
4 White British 0.7%
5 Colombians 0.5%
6 Bolivians 0. 4%
7 Italians 0.4%
8 Chinese 0.4%

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Diversity in Spain | Abroad Guide

Welcome to Spain

The Spain Destination Guide will provide a historic overview, scholarships, health and safety tips and identity-specific resources to ensure students feel prepared with insight and resources for their global experience in Spain.

The information shared below is a bird eye’s view and meant to provide some country-specific context. We encourage students to conduct further research and chat with relevant points of contact including advisors, program leaders, international student services at the host campus, internship coordinators or peers who have traveled to Italy, to gain a greater understanding of their host country and/or city.

Overview

Home to the second most widely spoken language in the world, and once the most powerful country in the world, Spain had its share of ups and downs throughout history leaving an everlasting influence across the globe. Today, Spain is a popular travel destination for students due to its architecture, clothing, music, and dance. Spain still carries a great amount of influence in Europe and the rest of the world. Its fashion, music, art and science are constantly evolving and helping redefine the standards of today. Madrid and Barcelona annually stand at the top of the list of most visited cities in Europe. Spain’s epic history, charismatic citizens and eye candy around every corner enchant the hearts of new visitors year after year.

You will never run out of things to do while studying abroad in Spain. From the historical architecture in Barcelona such as the Basilica of the Sagrada Familia, to the countless art museums, wineries and restaurants, you will find new and interesting ways to learn and get connected with Spanish culture and history. Also, no trip to Spain would be complete without indulging in the nightlife, especially in Ibiza, which is legendary.

Additional Resources:

Best Places to Visit In Spain

Britannica — Spain

CIA.gov — Spain

The Guardian — Spain

Culture Trip — Spain

Cities & Education

Studying abroad in Spain offers the opportunity to learn and immerse yourself in one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Spain also has breathtaking natural beauty, from picturesque mountains to pristine beaches. Also, its proximity to the rest of Europe and North Africa makes it a crossroads for a number of cultures making your experience even richer. Spain also boasts some of the best nightlife scenes in the world and is consistently ranked as one of the countries that American students study in most.

Spain has 45 universities featured in theTimes Higher Education World University Ranking 2020. The most highly ranked and popular institutions are based in Madrid and Barcelona as well as in the smaller cities of Seville and Granada.

Events & Tourism

Spain has many celebrations based on historical moments, culture and more. See the resources below to learn more about the celebrations that may take place in the city you are visiting.

Additional Resources:

The Best Events in Spain

Culture Trip — Spain

Spain hosts many historical sites, seven of which are named UNESCO World Heritage. From Madrid, Barcelona to Seville, students can admire staple landmarks that showcase historic milestones and significance.

Additional Resources:

Top 5 Historical Sites in Spain

11 Breathtaking Places to Visit in Spain Before You Die

Diversity & Inclusion Climate

Spain is the third most popular destination for U.S. students studying abroad. According to the Institute of International Education (IIE) Open Doors Report 2018, almost 31,230 students from the United States participated in a global program in Spain. Engulfing its Iberian neighbor Portugal, Spain has coasts along the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with the Strait of Gibraltar to the south separating it from Morocco. In addition to multiple coasts of ocean and sea for your to enjoy, Spain is mountainous (the second-most in Europe) to fulfill all your outdoor adventures. Spain’s mountainsides, beaches, pastoral countryside and cosmopolitan cities all beckon international visitors.

U.S. students are attracted to study abroad programs in Spain for a variety of reasons, particularly the study of its language, as well as business and international relations, among other subjects. As with other visitors, students seek out Spain for its architecture, culture and nightlife, not to mention quick access to Western Europe. Higher education institutions in Spain enjoy good international reputations. There are a variety of options there for students across disciplines, depending on the study abroad program. Although Castilian Spanish is the national language and many Spaniards also speak some English, regional dialects are still very pronounced in Spain. Some provinces, such as Catalonia, Valencia, Galicia and the Basque country, have their own dialect as the official language. Despite this language variety, even students with low proficiency levels in Spanish should be able to navigate life in Spain, as there is a robust infrastructure for accommodating international visitors.

The racial and ethnic makeup of Spain is becoming just as diverse as its languages. In 2017, the total number of Spanish Muslims came to 834,000 – a number that rises to around 1.95 million when the additional 1.1 million Muslim migrants are factored in, predominantly from Morocco, Pakistan, Senegal and other countries according to

While the Spanish government does not record statistics on the ethnic and racial background of its population, it records the population of non-citizens in Spain, which in 2018 equaled to 4.7 million, around 10% of the population. Migrants largely come from the following countries: Morocco 769,100, Romania 673,000, UK 240,900, China 215,800, Colombia 165,600, Ecuador 135,000, Bulgaria 123,700, Germany 110,900 and Ukraine 106,800.

Spain has the largest Roma population in Western Europe, numbering approximately 725,00 – 750,000 and there is a very small Jewish community comprising approximately 40,000 people, living mainly in Madrid, Barcelona and Malaga as well in the parts of Ceuta and Melilla.

Reference: Minority Rights Organization

Country Demographics

Note: These tips are intended to serve as an overview and are not exhaustive. Be sure to research your destination thoroughly to prepare for your experience abroad. Data acquired via the Cia.gov Work Factbook

Population in Spain:

49,331,076 (July 2018 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Spaniards

adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups:

Spanish 86.4%

Morocco 1.8%

Romania 1.3%

other 10.5%

Languages:

Castilian Spanish

Catalan

Religions:

Majority Roman Catholic

Atheist

Staying Healthy and Safe in Spain

You cannot always predict the hiccups that may occur during your time abroad, but taking the proper measures to ensure your health and safety in Spain will eliminate or lessen the extremities of any unplanned situations.

Health

Health insurance is mandatory for all international students in Spain. Students participating in a study abroad program of any duration are required to have international health insurance, usually included in the program costs and provided by your academic institution or program provider. If you are traveling independently, research international options available to you within your current health care provider. You can also look into international health insurance companies that provide various plans and choose the one that best suits the type and duration of your travels in Spain.

In the case of an emergency, be sure this information is easily accessible by storing your insurance card in a transportable and secure place, creating a copy of your health insurance card or storing the information in your phone. It is also helpful to be aware of nearby hospitals, clinics and pharmacies in case you are in need of these services or resources. The Spain emergency number is 112.

Safety

Spain is a fairly safe place with a relatively low crime rate, however no matter where you are in the world, whether it is your hometown or a new city, it is important to be alert and practice awareness of your surroundings. Most travelers can expect a safe experience in Spain. Crimes to be aware of mostly involve pickpocketing and theft, which usually take place near areas heavily populated by tourists, generally in larger cities such as Barcelona and Madrid. Here are a few quick tips to ensure your safety during your time abroad:

  • Be aware of your surroundings
  • Leave valuable items at home whenever possible and only travel with your necessities
  • Avoid being flashy or careless with valuable items
  • Ensure your bags and pockets are tight and completely zipped
  • Have a travel partner when possible

At Diversity Abroad, we acknowledge that experiences can vary by identities and others’ perceptions of them. To access identity-based resources regarding health and safety view the Diversity & Inclusion Guides to Spain below.

Additional Resources:

CDC — Spain

The US Department of State — Spain

Reviews — Best Travel Insurance

Funding and Scholarship Opportunities

There are many scholarships to fund your education abroad experience. Here is a list of Diversity Abroad scholarships available for study in this country, some of which can be applied to other types of international experiences:

Diversity Abroad Overseas Ambassador Scholarship

Diversity Abroad Consortium Summer Scholarship

Diversity Abroad AIFS Achievement Scholarship

For more scholarships, visit our Scholarships page.

Population of Spain

Spain population counter

46 470 948

Population

22 955 404

Male population (49.4%)

23 515 544

Female population (50.6%)

366 409

Born this year

1080

Born today

347 104

Died this year

1023

Died today

-100 861

Migrated this year

-297

Migrated today

-81 556

Population growth this year

-240

Population growth today

05-11-2022 20:51:24

Source : United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division .

COVID-19 Daily Statistics

COVID-19 Notice!

The data presented on this site do not reflect the real migration pattern, due to the restriction of movement,
introduced by most countries of the world due to the pandemic of coronavirus infection COVID-1

Content

  1. Population counter
  2. Population in 2022
  3. Demographics in 2021
  4. Population density
  5. Religious beliefs
  6. Age-sex pyramid
  7. Dependency ratio
    • Child load factor
    • Pension load factor
  8. Lifespan
  9. Literacy
  10. Population history
  11. Population forecast

Facts about the population of Spain

9000 46 471 189

9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000

000

9000 43.2 9000 9000

81.2 (78.2 — men, 84.4 — women)

Population for today
RATIVE OF
31 (0.58% of the Earth population)
505 370 km 2
Population density
92. 0 on km 2
Pauls ratio
0.98 (22 955 404 men at 23 515 544 women)
Age Age
Population literacy
98.1%

(Number of people calculated by Countrymeters (countrymeters.info)
based on latest data published by UN Population Division)

Population of Spain in 2022

In 2022, the population of Spain will decrease by -96,364 and at the end of the year will be 46,456,140. Natural population growth will be positive and will amount to 22,811 people. For the entire year, approximately 432,938 children will be born and 410,128 people will die. If the level of external migration remains at the level of the previous year,
then, due to migration reasons, the population will change by -119,174 people. That is, the total number of people leaving the country (emigrants) will prevail over the number of people
entering the country for the purpose of long-term stay (immigrants).

Dynamics of population change in Spain in 2022

Below are the coefficients of change in the population of Spain, calculated by us for 2022:

  • Mortality: average 1,124 per day (46.82 per hour)
  • Migration population growth: on average -327 people per day (-13.60 per hour)
  • The rate of population decline in Spain in 2022 will be 264 persons per day.

    Population of Spain 2021

    At the end of 2021, the population of Spain was estimated to be 46,552,504 people. In 2021, the population of Spain decreased by approximately 96,564 people. Considering that the population of Spain at the beginning of the year was estimated at 46,649,068 people, the annual increase was -0.21%.

    Here are the main demographics of Spain for 2021:

    • Births: 433 836 people
    • Dead: 410,978 people
    • Natural increase of population: 22,858 people
    • Migration population growth: -119 422 people
    • Men: 22,995,690 (As of December 31, 2021)
    • Women: 23,556,814 (As of December 31, 2021)

    Population growth 1952 — 2022

    Population density in Spain

    According to the United Nations Department of Statistics, the total area of ​​Spain
    is 505,370 square kilometers.

    Total area refers to the land area and the area of ​​all water surfaces of a state within international borders.
    Population density is calculated as the ratio of the total population living in a given territory to the total area of ​​this territory.
    As of 1 January 2022, the population of Spain was estimated to be 46,552,504 people.

    Thus, the population density of Spain is 92.1 people per square kilometer.

    Religion in Spain

    .1 %

    9000 975 895 9000 9000 9000 2.1 %

    000 9000 9000 IUDAM

    Religion Number of followers Percentage of total population
    Christianity 36 572 826 78.7 %
    Non -religious and atheists 875 997
    0.1%

    Source: Pew Research Center. The Global Religious Landscape

    .

    Number of followers ( 05.11.2022 — Countrymeters.info
    ).

    Population distribution by age groups

    According to our calculations, as of the beginning of 2022, the population of Spain had the following age distribution:

    15. 1 67.7 17.1

    In absolute numbers:

    • 7 051 308 people under 15 (men:
      3,630,630 / women: 3,420,678)
    • 31,536,528 people over 14 and under 65 (men:
      15 967 043 / women: 15 569 485)
    • 7,964,668 people over 64 (men:
      3 375 057 / women: 4 589 611)

    We have prepared a simplified model of the age-sex pyramid, in which only three age groups are presented, the data on which were given above:

    men women

    Note: The scale of the pyramid differs from the absolute values ​​given above because each age group contains a different number of years.

    As we can see, the age pyramid of Spain has a regressive or decreasing type. This type of pyramid is usually found in highly developed countries.
    In such countries, the level of health care is usually quite high, as is the level of education of citizens.
    Due to relatively low mortality and birth rates, the population has a high life expectancy.
    All these factors, along with many others, lead to the aging of the population (increase the average age of the population).

    Source: Data in this section are based on the latest publications of the United Nations Department of Statistics in the field of demographic and social statistics.

    .

    Dependency ratio

    Dependency ratio shows the burden on society and the economy from the non-working population (dependent population).
    The non-working-age population refers to the total population under 15 years of age and the population over 64 years of age.
    The age of the working-age population (the productive part of the population), respectively, is between 15 and 65 years.

    The dependency ratio directly reflects the financial costs of social policy in the state.
    For example, with an increase in this coefficient, expenditures on the construction of educational institutions, social protection, healthcare, pension payments, etc. should be increased.

    Total dependency ratio

    Total dependency ratio is calculated as the ratio of the dependent part of the population to the able-bodied or productive part of the population.

    For Spain, the total dependency ratio is 47.6%.

    The value of 47.6% is relatively low.
    It shows that the working-age population is more than twice the size of the non-working-age population.
    This attitude creates a relatively low social burden on society.

    Potential replacement rate

    Potential replacement rate (child load ratio) is calculated as the ratio of the population below working age to the working age population.

    The potential replacement rate for Spain is 22.4%.

    Pension load factor

    Pension load factor is calculated as the ratio of the population above the working age to the working age population.

    The pension burden ratio in Spain is 25.3%.

    Source: Data in this section are based on the latest publications of the United Nations Department of Statistics in the field of demographic and social statistics

    .

    Life expectancy

    Life expectancy is one of the most important demographic indicators.
    It shows the average number of years of a person’s life ahead.
    That is, the number of years that a person can theoretically live, provided that the current birth and death rates remain unchanged throughout a person’s life.
    As a rule, life expectancy is understood as life expectancy at birth, that is, at the age of 0 years.

    Average life expectancy at birth (for both sexes) in Spain is 81.2 years (years).
    This is above the world average life expectancy, which is around 71 years
    (according to the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs).

    The average life expectancy of men at birth is 78.2 years (years).
    Female life expectancy at birth — 84.4 years (years).

    Literacy of the population

    According to our calculations in Spain, about 38,749,427 people over the age of 15 can read and write in any language. This is 98.1% of the total adult population.
    The adult population in this case refers to all people over 15 years of age.
    Accordingly, about 751,769 people are still illiterate.

    Adult male literacy rate is 98.75% (19099 550 people).
    242 550 people are illiterate.
    The female adult literacy rate is 97.47% (19,649,877 people).
    509 219 people are illiterate.

    The youth literacy rate is 99.72% and 99.77% for men and women respectively.
    The overall youth literacy rate is 99.74%.
    The concept of youth in this case covers the population aged 15 to 24 inclusive.

    Source: Data for Spanish population literacy
    based on the latest data published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (retrieved March 13, 2016)

    .

    Spain historical population (1951 — 2022)

    Data shown as of 1 January of the respective year.

    Spain population history

    9000 28 500 524

    0.67 % 9000 9000 9000 9000

    9000

    9000 9000

    005

    9000 32 320 368

    1.09 %

    000

    000

    000

    000 9000 9000 9000 9000

    34 466 933

    9000 9000

    009

    9000 0.88 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 %

    9000 312 330 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000 476

    0.35 %

    9000 %

    9000 9000 9000

    9000

    9000 %

    9000 9000 0.77 % 9,000 % 9,000 % 9,000 % 9000 % 9000 %0009

    ,000,000 806 9000 9000 9000 1.5 % 9000,000,000 9000,000,000 9000,000,000,000,000,000,000 9000,000 1.5 % 9000,000,000,000 9000 1.5 % 9000 9000 1.5 % 9000 9000 1.5 % 9000 9000 1.5 % 9000 9000 1.5 % 954 345

    9000 44 376 755

    1.63 %

    9000 9000 45 081 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 695

    006 2014

    9000 652 922

    9000 —0.15 %

    9000 9000 9000 96 640 833

    9000 6 715 003

    0.10 %

    9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000

    9000 649 649 068

    9000 552 504

    -0.21 %

    Year Population Population growth
    1951 28 145 293 N/A %
    1952 28 309 817 0. 58 %
    1953 28 710 080 0.74 %
    1955 28 934 149 0.78 %
    1956 29 169 896 0.81 %
    1957 29 417 894 0.85 %
    1958 29 678 569 0.89 %
    1959 29 955 116
    1961 30 567 376 1.05 %
    1962 30 903 984 1.10 %
    1963 31 255 590 1.14 %
    1964 31 613 334 1.14 %
    1965 31 970 553 1.13 %
    1966
    1967 9000 9000 9000 9000 662 303 1. 06 %
    1968 33 000 404 1.04 %
    1969 33 344 661 1.0 34 077 183 1.11 %
    1972 1.14 %
    1973 34 868 49000
    35 274 607 1.16 %
    1975 35 679 478 1.15 %
    1976 36 079 065 1.12 %
    1977 36 473 362 1.09 %
    1978 36 855 121 1.05 %
    1979 37 215 029
    19000 9000 37 543 356
    1981 37 836 209 0.78 %
    1982 38 091 804 0.68 %
    1983 0. 49 %
    1985 38 660 890 0.42 %
    1 38 795 249
    19000 19000 9000 9000

    009

    0.28 %
    1988 38 996 818 0.23 %
    1989 39 078 949 0.21 %
    1990 39 160 885 0.21 %
    1991 39 251 199 0.23 %
    39 355 272 0.27 %
    1993 39 472 794
    19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 1994 39 597 422 0.32 %
    1995 39 724 269 0.32 %
    1996 39 848 520 0.31 %
    1997 39 972 643 0.31 %
    40 119 107 0. 37 %
    1999 40 329 056
    20000

    640 620
    2001 41 074 121 1.07 %
    2002 41 621 978
    2003 1.64 %
    2005 43 666 652 1.66 %
    2006
    2007 1.59 %
    2008 45 750 689 1.48 %
    2009 46 328 304 1.26 %
    2010 46 758 716 0.93 %
    2011 47 008 256 0. 53 %
    47 073 593 0.14 %
    46 996 262 9000.0.16 % 9000 % 9000 % 9000 %

    46 853 613 -0.30.30 %
    2015 46 724 487 .28 %
    2016
    -0.03 %
    2018 46 670 331 0.06 %
    0.07 %
    2021 -0.21 %
    2022

    All data in this table are given as of January 1 of the relevant year.

    Population forecast (2020-2100)

    9000.55 %

    9000

    9000 44 394 556

    9000,000,000,000,000,2.10009

    9000 9000 9000 9000 39 842 9000 9000 9000 -2.8888888888888888888888888L

    999 37 666 646 9000 -1.26 % 9000 9000 9000 9000 20000 9000 9000 9000 9000

    9000 -1.11 (medium version of the forecast).

    Source : United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division

    Spain: Country Features

    Overview Visa Country Features History Geography Climate Culture Cities Cuisine Shops Phone Transport

    Brief general information

    Spain is divided into 17 autonomous regions, which include 50 provinces: Madrid, Catalonia, Valencia, Basque Country, Navarra, Rioja, Murcia, Aragon, Andalusia, Cantabria, Castilla-Leon, Castilla-La Mancha, Asturias , Galicia, Extremadura, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands. The capital of the country is Madrid.

    Spain is recognized as a single nation formed on the basis of various historical regions and ethnic groups, the main of which are Catalans (15.6%), Andalusians (15.6%), Castilians (11.1%), Valencians (9.7%), Galicians (7.4%) and Basques (5.6%). Four languages ​​are spoken in Spain: Spanish, Basque, Catalan and Galician. The official and most widely spoken language in the country is Spanish. The total population of the country is 39.6 million people; population density — 78.5 people per 1 km 2 ; annual population growth — 0.2%; illiteracy rate — 4.6%; life expectancy is 78 years.

    The population of Spain is largely formed by migration. During the reign of dictator Franco, a powerful flow of immigrants in search of work and a better life went to the countries of Latin America and Europe (France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, etc.). In the last 10–15 years, due to the changed political and economic situation, the flow of Spaniards returning to their homeland has far exceeded the number of those emigrating. In addition to repatriates, the population of Spain has been growing in the last 10-15 years due to immigrants from other countries, mainly from the Arab countries of North Africa.

    Almost the entire population of Spain (99%) is Catholic. The Catholic Church, being at the same time a large landowner, industrialist and banker, enjoys great influence in the country.

    Since the Phoenicians brought grapes and olives to the Iberian Peninsula, wine and olive oil have become the basis of Spanish cuisine. Later, the Arabs made a huge contribution to the formation of Spanish cuisine. They introduced citrus fruits (lemon, orange), many types of spices and herbs into it, and cider from wines. Spanish paella is famous all over the world — Valencian pilaf. Its main components are rice, butter, pieces of chicken and pork, crustaceans, artichokes, peppers, garlic, onions, saffron and aromatic herbs. Wash down paella with dry wines.

    The Catholic religion has long had a great influence on the family and social life of Spaniards. Centuries-old religious traditions are so strong in the country that the majority observe church rites, fasts, and celebrate holidays. Of the religious holidays in Spain, Holy Week, which has been celebrated since the Middle Ages, is especially popular. Brightly decorated religious processions pass through all the cities and villages of the country. Separate scenes from the life of Christ are played out — the crucifixion of Christ, the resurrection of Christ, etc.

    Numerous carnivals and fun fairs are also celebrated in Spain. The most noisy and fun of carnivals — fallas — is held in Valencia on the day of St. Joseph (San Jose), the patron saint of carpenters and cabinetmakers. On this day, large cardboard and rag dolls — fallas are carried around the streets, and at night, to the sound of music, with flashes of sparklers and firecrackers, they are burned.

    A very special and unique phenomenon in Spain is the bullfight, the famous bullfight. This is a traditional spectacle, rooted in the depths of the history of the Mediterranean. She was known in Crete during the heyday of the Minoan culture (2000-1450 BC), as evidenced by the frescoes depicting dancers and bulls. Bullfighting in Spain is held almost everywhere, but its largest center is Seville. The main character of the bullfight is the matador killing the bull. The most famous matadors, such as Juan Antonio Ruiz, became the national heroes of Spain.

    Natural attractions

    Spain is considered the largest «hunting» country in Europe. The largest game reserve — Sakha (177 thousand hectares) occupies almost the entire eastern half of the province of Santander in the Cantabrian mountains (north of the country). In the beech and oak forests of this reserve, bear, wild boar, roe deer, wolf, chamois are hunted, and among birds — partridge and snipe.

    One of the most beautiful and richest hunting reserves in Spain in terms of flora and fauna — Somiedo (88 thousand hectares) — is located in the mountains of the northern province of Oviedo. Its forests consist of a wide variety of broad-leaved species. Bear, wolf, fox, wild boar, roe deer, chamois, polecat, marten, hare are found here, among birds — wood grouse, partridge, snipe, wild pigeon, quail.

    In Spain, the Sierra de Cazorla, crossed by the Guadalquivir River, is considered a real miracle of nature in terms of the richness of species and the beauty of landscapes. On its right bank, in the lower reaches, there is the Koto-Donyana nature reserve. The landscape of marisma is protected here — brackish-water coastal swamps of the southern type (reminiscent of the lower reaches of the Volga) with exceptionally rich flora and fauna. Colonies of waterfowl are especially numerous: ducks, geese, flamingos, white storks. A huge colony of herons lives here.

    The semi-desert southeastern regions of Spain are considered one of the most convenient places to study the life of scorpions and tarantulas. Chameleons live in the south of the country.

    This is the custom

    Spaniards are a very peculiar people. The «Spanish temperament» manifests itself already in the fact that in Spain the usual manner of speaking is loud. So if you want to inquire about the route from a passer-by, shout, do not be shy, otherwise you may not be heard in the noise.

    Spaniards are unusually friendly and benevolent. They will always explain the way to you, or even guide you. But it is better not to ask for directions in English, since many Spaniards do not know it even in school volume. Just name the object you are interested in and say «donde» (where?) and don’t forget to add «por favor» (please) and «gracias» (thank you). In a bar and shop, first ask «quando cuesta» (how much does it cost?), pointing to the item or dish that interests you.

    If a Spaniard invites you to dinner, it does not mean that you will immediately go to a restaurant. «Dine» in Spanish means to first drink an aperitif, for example, in the Retiro Park, then walk, let’s say, along Gran Via, then just go to a restaurant for lunch and finally drink coffee, for example, in Columbus Square.

    If you are invited to walk around Plaza Mayor, this means that you should visit the various bars and cellars that are located in the area and constitute one of the most attractive attractions in Madrid.

    If you order a mug of beer at a bar, don’t be surprised that it will be served with a plate of olives and a piece of ham. You don’t have to pay for a snack, it’s just a sign of sympathy for you and gratitude for visiting this establishment. Remember that the bartender in Madrid perceives you first of all as a guest.

    It is customary for the Spaniards to give up their seat in transport, but not as much as in Russia. Therefore, this step of yours means a manifestation of great courtesy, which will certainly be noted. On the other hand, holding the door in front of the trail is a rule among the Spaniards, which is akin to a reflex.

    As far as phone calls are concerned, in Spain it is not customary to call after 23:00. It is better not to disturb people during the siesta, that is, from 13:00 to 16:00. At this time, offices, shops and even schools are closed.

    When communicating with Spaniards, we advise you not to touch on some topics, for example, bullfighting.

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    Year Population Population growth
    2020 46,459 218 N/A %
    2025 46 306 823 -0. 33 %
    2030 9000 46 115 131 .41 %
    2035 45 860 815
    20000 9000 9000 91

    –0.70 %
    2045 45 079 686 -1.01 %
    -1.52 %
    2055
    2060 42 272 219 -2.68 %
    2065 41 025 20000 9000 —2.95 %
    38 858 207 -2.47 %
    2080 38 148 868 -1.83 %
    2085 37 273 840 -1.04 %
    2095 36 859 898