Spain and puerto rico: The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

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1898 HOME > Puerto Rico > The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

Of all Spanish colonial possessions in the Americas, Puerto Rico is the only territory that never gained its independence. Internal and geopolitical dynamics during
the last quarter of the nineteenth century, nevertheless, brought dramatic political, social, and
economic changes to the island, setting the stage for the development of its national institutions
and the transformation of its political system as a United States territory during the twentieth
century.

After four centuries of Spanish colonial rule, the period between 1860 and 1898 witnessed a
pro-independence rebellion, colonial reform, the establishment of the first national political
parties, the abolition of slavery, and a short-lived experiment in autonomy under Spanish rule. The
political and military strategies of a decaying Spain and the emerging regional power of the United
States at the end of the nineteenth century, however, placed Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, at center stage in the Caribbean. The dynamics of this power
imbalance culminated in the formal transfer of the island to the United States in 1898 at the end of
the Spanish-American War.

Last Decades under Spanish Rule.
Located at the north east of the Caribbean Sea, Puerto Rico was key to the Spanish Empire since
the early years of conquest and colonization of the New World. The smallest of the Greater
Antilles, Puerto Rico was a major military post during many wars between Spain and the other
European powers for control of the region during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; a
stepping stone in the passage from Europe to Cuba, Mexico, Central America, and the northern
territories of South America. Throughout most of the nineteenth century, Puerto Rico and Cuba,
remained the last two Spanish colonies in the New World and served as the final outposts in
Spanish strategies to regain control of the American continent.

During the early 1860s, local Spanish authorities, alarmed by conspiracies from separatist groups,
applied severe measures against all acts of dissidence on the island. Freedom of the press was
non-existent, and group discussions were monitored by the government. The island was ruled by
«leyes especiales»; extraordinary decrees dictated by the Captain Generals, or
governors, appointed by Spain.

By 1867, Puerto Rico had 656,328 inhabitants; its population recorded as 346,437 whites and
309,891 «of color» (this category included blacks, mulattos and mestizos). Out of this
heterogeneity, a sense of national culture had been established, as represented in music, the arts,
colloquial language, and architecture. The majority of Puerto Ricans lived in extreme poverty and
agriculture—the main source of income—was limited by lack of roads, rudimentary tools and
equipment, and natural disasters—such as hurricanes and periods of drought. While illiteracy was
83. 7 percent, the intellectual minority remained relatively active within the limitations imposed by
local Spanish authorities.

Many supporters of Puerto Rican independence and others who simply called for liberal reforms
under Spain were jailed or exiled during this period. In addition, Puerto Rico suffered at the time
a severe economic crisis due to increasing tariffs and taxes imposed by a mercantilist Spain on
most import and export goods—the Spanish Crown badly needed these funds to subsidize its
troops in an effort to regain control of the Dominican Republic.

Frustrated by the lack of political and economic freedom, and enraged by the continuing
repression on the island, an armed rebellion was staged by the pro-independence movement in
1868. The so-called «Grito de Lares» broke in
September 23, 1868. The rebellion was planned by a group, led by Dr.
Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis, who in January 6, 1868
founded the «Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico» (Revolutionary
Committee of Puerto Rico) from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances authored several
«Proclamas» or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the
Spanish colonial system and called for immediate insurrection. These statements soon circulated
throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. Secret cells of the
Revolutionary Committee were established in Puerto Rico bringing together members from all
sectors of society, to include landowners, merchants, professionals, peasants, and slaves. Most
were «criollos» (born on the island). The critical state of the economy, along with the
increasing repression imposed by the Spanish, served as catalysts for the rebellion. The stronghold
of the movement was found in towns located on the mountains of the western part of the island.

Although original plans called for the insurrection to begin on September 29, Spanish authorities
on the island discovered the plan forcing the rebels to move up the date. It was then agreed to
first strike at the town of Lares on September 23. Some 400-600 rebels gathered on that day in
the hacienda of Manuel Rojas, located in the vicinity of Pezuela, on the
outskirts of Lares. Poorly trained and armed, the rebels reached the town by horse and foot
around midnight. They looted local stores and offices owned by «peninsulares»
(Spanish-born men) and took over the city hall, proclaiming the new Republic of Puerto Rico.
Spanish merchants and local government authorities, considered by the rebels to be enemies of the
fatherland, were taken as prisoners. The following day, September 24, the Republic of Puerto
Rico was proclaimed under the presidency of Francisco Ramírez. All slaves that had
joined the movement were declared free citizens. The rebel forces then departed to take over the
next town, San Sebastián del Pepino. The Spanish militia, however, surprised the group
with strong resistance, causing great confusion among the armed rebels who, led by Manuel
Rojas, retreated back to Lares. Upon an order from the governor, Julián Pavía,
the Spanish militia soon rounded up the rebels and quickly brought the insurrection to an end.
Some 475 rebels were imprisoned, among them, Manuel Rojas. On November 17, a military court
imposed the death penalty, for treason and sedition, on all prisoners. Nevertheless, in an effort to
appease the already tense atmosphere on the island, the incoming governor, José
Laureano Sanz, dictated a general amnesty early in 1869 and all prisoners were released.

Between 1869 and 1873, the establishment of a liberal government in Spain led to ample liberties
in the Caribbean, including the rights of Cubans and Puerto Ricans to send representatives to the
Spanish Cortes. The liberal reforms extended to the island, to include the status of
Diputación Provincial (making the island a Province of Spain), and paved the way for the
establishment of the first national political parties. While the pro-independence movement
remained disbanded and most of its leadership was still in exile, conservative and liberal factions
took over the local political arena, leading to a more open debate on the political status and social
demands of the times. The conservative faction, mostly represented by «peninsulares»,
favored a continuation of the status quo that would maintain the local government under
hand-picked Captain Generals ruling by decree, and favored slavery, as well as all the privileges
until then given to the predominantly Spanish ruling class. The liberal faction, on the other hand,
called for the total integration of Puerto Rico as a province of Spain, thereby extending to the
island all the privileges of the then-liberal Spanish regime. They also called for the abolition of
slavery and ample political reforms at the local level. In November 1870, the liberals founded the
Partido Liberal Reformista (Liberal Reform Party), led by Román Baldorioty de Castro, José Julián
Acosta, and Pedro Gerónimo Goico, among others. Its leadership, however, was divided
into two factions; one supported total assimilation to Spain, while the other, the
«autonomistas», called for self-government under the Spanish flag, similar to the
British political arrangement with its former colonies. The newspaper El Progreso served as a
vehicle for public expression of the liberals’ views. Soon thereafter, the conservatives founded the
Partido Liberal Conservador (Liberal Conservative Party), using the newspaper Boletín
Mercantil as the conservative means for disseminating their views. Although Puerto Rican
representatives to the Spanish Cortes succeeded in their efforts to obtain political reforms during
this period, in practice, local Spanish authorities kept a tight grip on the island, threatened by
rumors from abroad of plots and potential insurrection by the separatists. In this, censorship of the
press was particularly effective as were government repression and political persecution directed
at the liberal camp.

In 1873, the Spanish Constitutional Monarchy was replaced by a republican government.
Although short-lived, the new Spanish Republic approved the abolition of slavery on the island on
March 22, 1873. While the new law was considered a step forward by Puerto Rican liberals, it did
not provide for immediate and total freedom of the island’s black population. Efforts for further
liberal reform on the island were aborted in 1874, when the Spanish Republic fell as the result of a
military coup, leading to the return of the Spanish Monarchy. Spanish authorities once again
appointed as governor José Laureano Sanz, who immediately overturned all established
democratic practices. Thus, Puerto Rico returned to its colonial status, ruled by special laws
dictated by a repressive ruler.

Between 1876 and 1898, the two liberal wings came together behind the idea of political
autonomy, leaving behind the notion of assimilation with Spain. During the mid-1880s, they
worked on a party platform calling for self government and renamed themselves the
«Partido Autonomista Puertorriqueño» (Puerto Rican Autonomist Party). The
pro-independence movement, meanwhile, planned several invasions from exile which never
materialized for lack of funds and support.

Towards the end of the 1880s, the island’s population suffered from a severe economic crisis. The
local monopoly of Spanish merchants fueled resentment and led to the establishment of secret
societies—organizations promoting the boycott of Spanish merchants and greater support for local
business. There were many violent incidents against Spanish commercial establishments,
particularly looting and arson. The government and its Civil Guard responded with a series of
raids and imprisonments, applying severe torture measures which became known as
«compontes». The social conditions of the island were also critical during this period.
In addition to a lack of civil liberties, approximately 85 percent of the population remained
illiterate. Malnutrition and extreme poverty were widespread throughout most of the countryside.

Puerto Ricans finally were granted self-government by Spain, when the «Carta
Autonómica» (a form of constitutional autonomy) was approved by the Spanish
Cortes in November 25, 1897. Nevertheless, by the time of the first elections in March 1898,
tensions were already building up between Spain and the United States, and the short-lived
self-government experiment came to an abrupt end one month later with the advent of the
Spanish-American War.

The dawn of a new colonial era under the United States.
The strategic value of Puerto Rico for the United States at the end of the nineteenth century
centered in economic and military interests. The island’s value to US policy makers was as an
outlet for excess manufactured goods, as well as a key naval station in the Caribbean. US Navy
Captain Alfred T. Mahan became the leading strategist and advisor to his government during the
1880s. He joined the faculty of the US Naval War College in 1884 and became its president in
1886. Mahan formulated a strategic doctrine based on naval power as the main element of military
supremacy. Thus, the strategic doctrine of the United States, until then focusing on ground
warfare, was replaced by the primacy of naval power. US naval power in the hemisphere,
resulting from the ascendancy of its naval technology at the time, thus became the strategic basis
of US military doctrine and foreign policy during the late nineteenth century.

Mahan played a key role in the Spanish-American War, as a military strategist and close advisor
to President McKinley throughout the conflict. Overall, the US war
strategy called for a predominantly maritime conflict in which the newly upgraded US Navy could
display its might.

During 1894 the first plans for a military conflict with Spain were formulated at the US Naval
War College. In 1896, a formal war plan was developed by Lieutenant William W. Kimball, a
naval intelligence officer at the War College. The stated objective was to ‘liberate Cuba’ from
Spanish rule. The main theater of operations would be the Caribbean, focusing on the Cuban and
Puerto Rican coastal regions, and the conflict would involve exclusively naval operations.
According to this plan, US naval power would be employed against the Spanish Navy at those
points where the enemy would face an equal or superior force.

Accordingly, the US Department of the Navy began operational preparations early in 1898. These
took into consideration a wealth of intelligence reports on the weakening conditions of the
Spanish forces. The mysterious explosion of the Maine battleship in the Havana harbor, killing some 300 US marines on February 15, 1898, was the turning point
for the United States to start its war operations. On April 21st, President McKinley formally
requested that the US Congress declare war against Spain. Although the US war effort had, in
retrospect, its tactical and logistical faults, its unquestionable military superiority over Spanish
forces led to a quick US victory.

The Spanish-American war lasted some four months. On May 1st, US forces destroyed the
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the Philippines dealing a decisive blow to the Spanish armada. Given
the weakness of the Spanish forces, the US then decided to expand its campaign, and bring in
ground troops. It also changed its strategy for Cuba and planned for military operations against
Havana, the island’s capital city and key post of Spain in the Caribbean. US troops landed in Cuba
late in June and on July 17 destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed in Santiago de Cuba Bay, thus securing total control of the
waterways in the Caribbean. Following these events, President McKinley set forth the conditions
for peace negotiations. The evacuation of Cuba by Spanish forces and its transfer to the United
States was the prelude to imposition of order and formation of a stable government on the island.
McKinley’s second demand was the transfer of Puerto Rico from Spanish authorities to the United
States without compensation.

Although Spanish surrender was certain at this point, the occupation of Puerto Rico followed in
an effort to secure the US presence on the island prior to the initial discussions of a peace
settlement. On July 18, General Nelson A. Miles, commander of the
invading forces, received orders to sail for Puerto Rico. Some 18,000 US troops with a naval
escort departed for Puerto Rico from Guantánamo Bay and the east coast of the United
States. They landed at Guánica Bay on July 25, immediately
moving to the city of Ponce and other towns located on the southern
part of the island. The US troops then proceeded north towards San
Juan, Puerto Rico’s capital and the main military post of Spanish forces on the island. But
before they could reach San Juan, Spain agreed on August 13th to sign a peace treaty with the
United States, putting an end to all military hostilities.

President McKinley’s conditions for a peace agreement prevailed throughout the peace
negotiations and were finally ratified in the Treaty of Paris, signed on
December 10, 1898. The formal transfer of Puerto Rico to the United States took two months,
from August 12 to October 18, when the last Spanish troops sailed back to Spain and the US flag
was raised in most public buildings on the island. A military government was established under the
command of General John R. Brooke.

The Treaty of Paris gave the United States full control over all former Spanish military
installations as well as some 120,000 acres of land formerly owned by the Spanish Crown on the
island. The main military posts were located in the capital city of San Juan along with military
bases in the towns of Cayey, Aibonito, Ponce, Mayagüez, Aguadilla and the adjacent island
of Vieques. Puerto Rico remained under direct control of US military forces until the US
Congress ratified the Foraker Law on April 12th, 1900, bringing a
civilian government to the island.

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86.02.01: Spain in Puerto Rico: The Early Settlements

The primary purpose of this unit,

Spain in Puerto Rico

:

The Early Settlements

, is to provide the teacher with a useful teaching tool of the early years after the discovery of Puerto Rico by Spain. I have tried to gather in this unit all the information a teacher would need in teaching about Puerto Rico’s Indian and Spanish heritage. To make the presentation more appealing, I have prepared a slide packet to go along with the unit.

A timely reason for preparing this unit is that in 1993, Puerto Rico will celebrate the 500th anniversary of its discovery by Christopher Columbus. This unit will therefore serve as cultural and historical enrichment for students in Spanish, Social Studies, and Bilingual classes in the junior and high school levels. Regular Spanish and Social Studies class students will learn about the culture and history of Puerto Rico and students in the Bilingual Program will be able to relate and reaffirm to their historical and cultural roots.

Life on the island of Boriquén, as the Taino Indians called Puerto Rico, was never the same after the arrival of the Spaniards in 1493. The fate of the Indians and their lifestyle was to disappear. They struggled valiantly but in vain to resist the domination by the conquerors.

The Spaniards’ quest to discover, colonize, and Christianize was unstoppable. The Indians were forced to give up many things: their direct communication with nature, their religion, and their homeland. Time proved that they would be extinct by midsixteenth century. They were forced to build homes, roads, and forts for the intruders and spend hours on end panning for gold. The Indians died because of exhaustion, starvation, desperation with their unexplainable situation, and illnesses unknown to them brought by the colonizers.

The process of colonizing, of building forts and towns, and Christianizing was slow at first and often discouraging. The Spaniards were prepared for dealing with the initial stages of discovering and conquering new lands and people. It was the difficulty in dealing with the magnitude of their enterprise in the New World which proved to be the key to the downfall of the Spanish Empire.


The Taino Indians

When the island of Boriquén, or the Land of the Noble Lord, was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was inhabited by Taino Indians. Several theories try to explain where they came from originally: possibly from Bimini, now Florida, in a Southward migration of the Archaic Indians and/or from South America in a Northbound migration of the Arawak Indians. Each group had certain characteristics that may have ultimately fused into the Taino Indians.

The earliest inhabitants, arcaicos or the Archaic Indians, were nomadic fishermen and did not know anything about farming, pottery making, stone carving, boat building, or making bows and arrows. The araucos or Arawaks, on the other hand, were farmers, boat builders, pottery makers, stone, wood, and bone carvers, and had bows and arrows. The Arawaks were better prepared on all counts over the Archaic Indians and either eliminated the Archaic Indians altogether or fused them into their culture.

The Arawaks were described by González Fernández de Oviedo, the first historian of the Indies, as being: “of copper colored skin, with straight but thick hair, high cheek bones, black colored eyes slightly oblique in shape.

1

Because of the climate, they wore little or no clothing and painted their bodies with red and black resins. Only the married woman wore a sliplike skirt called a

nagua.

There were two phases of development of the Arawak Indian culture, the

igneri

and

taino

. The older of the two, the igneri, excelled in pottery making. The taino phase excelled in stone carving, especially in the elaboration of arrow heads and religious artifacts. The igneri phase has been dated from the year 120 A.D. to around the year 1000 A.D. The taino phase lasted from the year 1000 A.D. until their extinction in the sixteenth century.

The Taino Indians lived in villages called

yucayeques

. There were two kinds of living quarters, the

bohio

, which was circular in shape, and the

caney

, which was larger and rectangular in shape. In this larger structure lived the

cacique

or the chief and the religious leaders. They had a caste system made of the military noblemen or

tainos

, the priests and doctors or

boitis

, and the common folk or

naboris

. They were very religious and worshipped gods that represented the forces of nature. Yukiyu represented the positive forces and Huracan represented the negative ones. The Indians idolized the

cemi

, a stone or clay figure that embodied the good and evil forces.

There were twenty or more villages or yucayeques on the island of Boriquén when the Spaniards arrived. These yucayeques were self-sufficient and selfgoverning, but when an emergency or attack arose they united under the command of Agueybana, the Elder, of Guainia, the principal headquarters on the southwestern end of the island. The Tainos were peace loving but were valiant warriors when they needed to defend themselves. When the Spaniards discovered Puerto Rico, the Tainos were at war with another group of Indians, the maneating Caribs, attacking from the Leeward Islands. These were the general conditions on the island at the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquerors toward the end of the fifteenth century.


Discovery and Conquest of Boriquén

In his letter to the Municipal Council of Seville, in Spain, Diego Alvarez Chanca, a doctor and one of the members of Columbus’ second expedition, wrote: “We traveled by this coast for most of one day until the next day in the afternoon when we spotted another island called

Burenquen

, which coast we followed a full day; it was judged that it was thirty leagues long. This island is very lovely and seems very fertile . . . At a bay on this island we were for two days where many people fled like people afraid of the Caribs. All these islands were discovered on this trail, none of which were seen by the Admiral on the other trip, all are very lovely and of good soil but this one seemed best to all . . . ”

2

The exact point of landing is not known and there are several theories on this issue, but the fact remains that the Spaniards set foot on land on the 19th of November of 1493 by the testimony of Miguel de Cueno, another member of the crew. Columbus named the island, San Juan Bautista, or Saint John the Baptist. The island was named in honor of Juan, the son of the Catholic king and queen of Spain.


Spain in the New World

The end of the fifteenth century marked the unification of Spain through the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabelle, the conquest of Granada, and the discovery of America. Spain became the wealthiest and most powerful nation in Europe. In architecture and in the arts, the Plateresque style, which relied on heavy ornamentation, became popular. The Plateresque style was of two types: Gothic, also known as Isabelline, and Renaissance.

The term Plateresque is used in architectural decoration to refer to its connection with plateria or silverwork. In Spanish architecture, the Plateresque style first consisted of Gothic motifs applied to Gothic constructions, but later these were applied to Renaissance structures or the Renaissance motifs applied to Gothic structures. The Renaissance Plateresque differed from the Isabelline style in that the ornamentation was more controlled and unified, and it also introduced massive effects which displaced Gothic lightness and articulation. The Isabelline Plateresque was the style of the fifteenth century and the Renaissance Plateresque was in vogue in the sixteenth century. Midway in the six-teenth century, the Italianate style, which was very classical and purist in its statement, was imported into Spain from Italy. Its designs were unadorned, symmetrical, but yet elegant. The emphasis was placed on the building itself and not in the decoration as was the emphasis of the Plateresque styles.

The Isabelline and Renaissance Plateresque styles and to some extent the Italianate, were transplanted from Spain to the colonies. On the islands, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, the architecture was not influenced by any Indian or native element. The buildings were designed and built by Spaniards. The tendency, however, was to simplify the Plateresque style rather than add to it, partly due to the materials available and to economic restraints.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the islands became strategic watchpoints in the Atlantic as Spain obtained more riches from its colonies. The new cities were under attack constantly. Massive fortifications were needed to protect the shipments from the Mexican silver and Peruvian gold mines. While the building of the forts went on, little attention was paid to the construction of churches, public buildings, and private homes. The structures within the forts were usually wooden houses and huts.

The 10 Best Vacation Rentals in Puerto Rico, Spain


Review Score

Excellent: 9+
Very good: 8+
Good: 7+
Fairly good: 6+

Our recommendations
Lowest price at the beginning
Number of stars and price
Rating + number of reviews

Apartamentos Monte Verde

Puerto Rico

Offering an outdoor pool, Monte Verde Apartments is located in Puerto Rico de Gran Canaria, close to Puerto Rico, Amadores and Tauro Beaches. The floor is parquet.
The people working here are very kind and caring! They make sure you feel welcome. The rooms are very spacious and clean. The garbage was taken out everyday and fresh towels and sheets were provided. The kitchen has everything you need to cook. The view from the terrace was amazing. The area is very quiet and consequently super close to everything. The beach and supermarkets are 5-10min by foot. The bus stop Puerto Rico is just 1 minute away, from which you can get to everywhere quickly. Overall a very good and relaxing stay. Definitely will come again.

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9.3

Excellent

274 reviews

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Sunshine Beach Villas

Puerto Rico

Sunshine Beach Villas is located 500 meters from Playa de Puerto Rico and 1.6 km from Puerto Rico’s Amadores Beach. Each villa has a cozy seating area.
As a family we just had one of the best vacations at Sunshine Beach Villas. Our host and the team on site were just fantastic. No query was an issue and the team were super responsive. The team were so helpful at any time of the day. The location was perfect for us. 5 mins walk to the beach for a swim, local super market. The house itself was immaculate, and it was cleaned 3 times while were there during our stay. Our host was very helpful with local activities and advice in relation to cycling routes and places to visit.

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9

Excellent

134 reviews

Check Availability

Granada II Apartments

Puerto Rico

Set in Puerto Rico, 2.4 km from Playa de Tauro and 4.2 km from Playa de Amadores, Granada II provides pool views, a terrace and free WiFi.
The stuff is super nice.
everything is great.
Would like to come back next time!

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9.2

Excellent

157 reviews

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Mirador del Mar Villas

Puerto Rico

Villa Mirador del Mar is located in the small resort town of Puerto Rico in the south of Gran Canaria, Spain. Europa Shopping Center is a 10-minute walk from the villas.
very clean and spacious great villa for a family vacation
Toni was fantastic to deal with 👌

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9

Excellent

113 reviews

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Apartamentos Gelimar

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Puerto Rico

Overlooking Gran Canaria’s Puerto Rico Bay, the family-run Gelimar Apartments offer an outdoor pool surrounded by terraces and gardens.
Location on a quiet street. To the beach on the stairs 10 minutes on foot or down the street 20 minutes. There is a convenience store nearby. The hotel itself is very neat and family run. Pool in the yard. All rooms +/- sea view. Internet is free and fast. The audience at the hotel is mostly families, so everyone sleeps after 11. The room has two bedrooms, a kitchen-living room and a terrace. Great for a family with kids, but I wouldn’t go with 4 adults to the same apartment. The kitchen has a stove, microwave, refrigerator, kettle. The terrace has enough space for a table and 4 chairs. Cleaned up every day. In general, we really liked the place.

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9

Excellent

162 reviews

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Apartamentos Florida Gran Canaria Adults Only

1 stars

org/PostalAddress»>

Puerto Rico

Florida is a large apartment complex located in the south-east of Gran Canaria. The complex has a swimming pool heated by solar panels.
The absolute best location with no hills to climb.
The host was so attentive to the guest’s needs.
The whole place was spotless.

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9.1

Excellent

548 reviews

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Marina Suites Gran Canaria

4 stars

Puerto Rico

This modern aparthotel is located next to the Puerto Rico Marina in Gran Canaria. The infinity pool overlooks the Atlantic Ocean.
The best hotel and best views in Puerto Rico

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9.1

Excellent

560 reviews

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Serenity Amadores

org/PostalAddress»>

Puerto Rico

The luxurious Serenity Amadores offers a large outdoor pool. It enjoys a quiet location overlooking Amadores Beach in southern Gran Canaria.
The view from the balcony was lovely … the balcony and apartments were a very good size. Everything in the kitchen appeared to be brand new. The pool itself was very nice … think it was heated

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9.2

Excellent

348 reviews

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Villas Opal Anfi Tauro

5 stars

Puerto Rico

The luxurious Anfi Opal villas in south-east Gran Canaria are less than 1 km from the Atlantic Ocean. All have private swimming pools, hot tubs and plasma-screen satellite TVs.
Stunning villa. Had everything you need in a gorgeous location. Hard to fault

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9

Excellent

285 reviews

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LOVELY APARTMENT in PUERTO RICO

org/PostalAddress»>

Puerto Rico

Within less than 1 km of Playa de Puerto Rico and 2.4 km of Amadores Beach, LOVELY APARTMENT in PUERTO RICO provides free WiFi and an outdoor swimming pool.
It was a perfect experience from start to end! The linen smelt so freshly washed when we arrived and the sofa bed was done for us which was so lovely after our long delayed flight!We did not expect that!The communication with the owner was amazing, Katia was very responsive and so understanding and helpful .We are very grateful to her as our flight back was delayed and we were allowed to stay longer on the leaving day, which was so appreciated! The apartment was beautifully furnished, very cozy and we had everything we needed and more! We would definitely book again!

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9.4

Excellent

14 reviews

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    This large and well-equipped apartment complex is located in Puerto Rico, in the south of Gran Canaria. This place is perfect for a fun sunny holiday.
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    Morasol Suites is located next to the Puerto Rico Marina in Gran Canaria with beautiful sea views. The distance to the beach is 400 m.
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    We wasn’t aware we needed to collect the keys from the Hotel Riosol but once we figured this out it. ..

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    From € 137.50 per night

    9.2
    Perfect
    157 reviews

    Breakfast offered

    Villa Mirador del Mar is located in the small resort town of Puerto Rico in the south of Gran Canaria, Spain. Europa Shopping Center is a 10-minute walk from the villas.
    very clean and spacious great villa for a family vacation Toni was fantastic to deal with 👌

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    From € 169.95 per night

    9.0
    Perfect
    113 reviews

    Breakfast offered

    Overlooking Gran Canaria’s Puerto Rico Bay, the family-run Gelimar Apartments offer an outdoor pool surrounded by terraces and gardens.
    Location on a quiet street. To the beach on the stairs 10 minutes on foot or down the street 20 minutes.

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    From € 160 per night

    9.0
    Perfect
    162 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Offering an outdoor pool, Monte Verde Apartments is located in Puerto Rico de Gran Canaria, close to Puerto Rico, Amadores and Tauro Beaches. The floor is parquet.
    The people working here are very kind and caring! They make sure you feel welcome.

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    From € 63.65 per night

    9.3
    Perfect
    274 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Offering a shared outdoor pool, Nachosol Premium Apartment is located in Puerto Rico. It offers a shared terrace with sun loungers and 2 Balinese beds.
    Amazing Apartment with Sea View, Nice Quiet Super for Relax and Chill out

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    From € 171.41 per night

    8.7
    amazing
    238 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    The Montebello complex offers spacious and well-equipped apartments with large terraces that offer great sea views.The entire complex has free…
    value for money!! Big balcony + great view. newly painted rooms.

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    From € 82.60 per night

    8.0
    Very well
    508 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Located in Puerto Rico de Gran Canaria, 1. 1 km from Playa de Puerto Rico and 2.7 km from Amadores Beach, Montecarlo Apartamento 11 provides accommodation with amenities such as free WiFi and a TV.

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    From € 556.10 per night

    4.0
    Review score
    1 review

    Free cancellation options available

    Located in Puerto Rico de Gran Canaria, 1.3 km from Playa de Puerto Rico and 1.6 km from Amadores Beach, Balcón de Amadores 2 provides accommodation with amenities such as free WiFi and a TV.

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    From € 389.16 per night

    8.0
    Very well
    2 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Apartment Granada II. Apartamento 1 is located in Puerto Rico, just 2.4 km from Playa de Tauro and 2 km from Playa de Amadores.

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    From € 975.61 per night

    9.5
    Fabulous
    2 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Boasting mountain views, Sindy Monteparaíso provides accommodation with a terrace and a kettle, around 1. 3 km from Playa de Tauro. It features a patio and pool.

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    From € 1,121.23 per night

    6.0
    Review score
    2 reviews

    Free cancellation options available

    Florida is a large apartment complex located in the south-east of Gran Canaria. The complex has a swimming pool heated by solar panels.
    The absolute best location with no hills to climb. The host was so attentive to the guest’s needs.

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    From € 132 per night

    9.1
    Perfect
    548 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    The luxurious Serenity Amadores offers a large outdoor pool. It enjoys a quiet location overlooking Amadores Beach in southern Gran Canaria.
    The view from the balcony was lovely … the balcony and apartments were a very good size.

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    From € 166.50 per night

    9. 2
    Perfect
    348 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    The luxurious Anfi Opal villas in south-east Gran Canaria are less than 1 km from the Atlantic Ocean. All have private swimming pools, hot tubs and plasma-screen satellite TVs.
    Stunning villa. Had everything you need in a gorgeous location. Hard to fault

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    From € 285 per night

    9.0
    Perfect
    285 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    Within less than 1 km of Playa de Puerto Rico and 2.4 km of Amadores Beach, LOVELY APARTMENT in PUERTO RICO provides free WiFi and an outdoor swimming pool.
    It was a perfect experience from start to end!

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    From € 75 per night

    9.4
    Perfect
    14 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    Moderno Residencial Puerto Rico Sol Mar y Piscina is located in Puerto Rico. It features a private swimming pool. Playa de Amadores Beach is 2.3 km away.
    Beautiful location with a very good view of mogan mall to see the fountains, the apartment was very…

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    9.9
    Fabulous
    10 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    Jumana Apt 107 Gran Canaria is located 400 meters from Puerto Rico Beach and 1 km from Amadores Beach. It offers free Wi-Fi and an outdoor pool.
    The property is freshly renovated, clean and perfect for a vacation.

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    9.5
    Fabulous
    10 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    Boasting city views, an outdoor pool and a balcony, Malibu2 Apartment is located around 2.5 km from Playa de Tauro. A patio is available.
    Very nice and comfortable apartment with balcony. It was great for us 2.

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    9.5
    Fabulous
    22 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    Featuring pool views, Bonanza Apt 2 Gran Canaria is located around 1.5 km from Playa de Tauro. It features an outdoor pool and a balcony.

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    From € 82. 40 per night

    9.0
    Perfect
    7 reviews

    Review score: above 8.0

    The Views Villa is located in Puerto Rico. The villa has a balcony and air conditioning.
    The location was superb, views are exceptional.

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    From € 295.90 per night

    9.0
    Perfect
    7 reviews

  • Many families visiting Puerto Rico enjoyed staying at Moderno Residencial Puerto Rico Sol Mar y Piscina, Villa Luxe Tauro Mogan and MGT — Appartamento sulla Spiaggia con terrazza romantica.

  • Popular places to stay in Puerto Rico include Apartamentos Monte Verde, Granada II Apartments, and Serenity Amadores.

  • The average price of a holiday home in Puerto Rico for today is €260.27 (based on Booking.com prices).

  • On average, Puerto Rico vacation rentals cost €458.01 per night (based on Booking.com prices).

  • The average price per night for a holiday rental in Puerto Rico for this weekend is €396.11 (based on Booking.com prices).

  • Jumana Apt 107 Gran Canaria, El Greco, and Mirador del Mar Villas in Puerto Rico have received great reviews for the views from their rooms.

  • These Puerto Rico vacation rentals are highly rated by couples: PUERTO RICO — a309, Moderno Residencial Puerto Rico Sol Mar y Piscina and The One Luxury Apartments.

  • Some of the best accommodations in Puerto Rico near

    Playa de Amadores Beach include Serenity Amadores, Perla de Amadores, and Villa Flamboyan.

Struggle of the US Colonies for Self-Determination — Research Portal of the Ural Federal University

After the victory over Spain in the war of 1898, the USA, having taken away Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain, became a colonial empire. Despite the struggle of the population of these territories for the right to self-determination, to this day both territories in many respects remain de facto US colonies. The authors of the article set the task of considering what successes Puerto Rico and Guam have achieved in the struggle for gaining sovereignty. At the same time, both actions are analyzed at the international level — an appeal to UN institutions, and at the national level — in the US Congress. More progress has been made by Puerto Rico in this regard. Unfortunately, this topic has not yet received sufficient coverage in the works of domestic researchers, although for the United States the issues of self-determination of the peoples and territories conquered by the Americans remain extremely relevant and politically painful. Issue number 11(3) Status Published — 2016

90AK35 9025 List B

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Piksaeva, K. I., & Pobedash, D. I. (2016). Guam and Puerto Rico: The struggle of the US colonies for self-determination. Bulletin of the Ural Federal University. Series 3: Social Sciences , 155 (11(3)), 206-216.

@article{f02da02f143041af9fe0071e7faaa3b2,

title = «Guam and Puerto Rico: The US Colonial Struggle for Self-Determination»,

abstract = «After defeating Spain in the 1898 war, the United States, having taken Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain, became a colonial empire. Despite the struggle of the population of these territories for the right to self-determination, until now both territories remain in many respects actually colonies of the United States.The authors of the article set the task of considering what successes Puerto Rico and Guam have achieved in the struggle for gaining sovereignty.At the same time, they are analyzed as actions at the international level — appeal to the UN institutions, and at the national level — in the US Congress. There is more significant progress made in this regard by Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, this topic has not yet received sufficient coverage in the works of domestic researchers, although for the United States the issues of self-determination of the peoples conquered by the Americans and territories remain highly relevant and politically sensitive.»,

author = «Piksaeva, {Ksenia Igorevna} and Pobedash, {Dmitry Ivanovich}»,

year = «2016»,

language = «Russian»,

volume = «155»,

pages = «206 —216»,

journal = «Proceedings of the Ural Federal University. Series 3: Social Sciences»,

issn = «2227-2291»,

publisher = «Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education {«}Ural Federal university. the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin {«}»,

number = «11(3)»,

}

Piksaeva, KI & Pobedash, CI 2016, ‘Guam and Puerto Rico: the struggle of the US colonies for self-determination’, Bulletin of the Ural Federal University. Series 3: Social Sciences , vol. 155, No. 11(3), pp. 206-216.

Guam and Puerto Rico: the struggle of the US colonies for self-determination. / Piksaeva, Ksenia Igorevna; Pobedash, Dmitry Ivanovich.

B: Bulletin of the Ural Federal University. Series 3: Social Sciences, Vol. 155, No. 11(3), 2016, pp. 206-216.

Research result: Contribution to the journal › Article › peer review

TY — JOUR

T1 — Guam and Puerto Rico: the struggle of the US colonies for self-determination

AU — Piksaeva, Ksenia Igorevna

AU — Pobedash, Dmitry Ivanovich 9005 9005 PY — 2016

Y1 — 2016

N2 — After the victory over Spain in the war of 1898, the United States, having taken away Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain, became a colonial empire. Despite the struggle of the population of these territories for the right to self-determination, to this day both territories in many respects remain de facto US colonies. The authors of the article set the task of considering what successes Puerto Rico and Guam have achieved in the struggle for gaining sovereignty. At the same time, both actions are analyzed at the international level — an appeal to UN institutions, and at the national level — in the US Congress. More progress has been made by Puerto Rico in this regard. Unfortunately, this topic has not yet received sufficient coverage in the works of domestic researchers, although for the United States the issues of self-determination of the peoples and territories conquered by the Americans remain extremely relevant and politically painful.

AB — After the victory over Spain in the war of 1898, the United States, having taken away Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain, became a colonial empire. Despite the struggle of the population of these territories for the right to self-determination, to this day both territories in many respects remain de facto US colonies. The authors of the article set the task of considering what successes Puerto Rico and Guam have achieved in the struggle for gaining sovereignty. At the same time, both actions are analyzed at the international level — an appeal to UN institutions, and at the national level — in the US Congress.

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