Castillo de san felipe del morro: Exploring Castillo San Felipe del Morro in Old San Juan

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Castillo de San Felipe del Morro — A Castle Fort in Puerto Rico | by Ward Salud | Castles in America

San Juan, Puerto Rico

Photo by Magic77 on Bigstock

The New World of the Americas held within untold amounts of treasure and none took advantage of this more than the kingdom of Spain. As the first to discover the new land, Spain quickly found out how rich the New World was, and soon after conquistadors like Cortez and Pizarro conquered the empires of the Americas, the kings and queens of Spain set up colonies to plunder its riches. So much treasure was found that they started even hearing about more riches like the lost golden city of El Dorado and the Fountain of Youth. Even when the Spanish failed to find these legends, they still had vast treasure fleets to take back to Spain. Piracy became a problem not just from notorious pirates like Blackbeard but also from “privateers,” pirates commissioned by other kingdoms like England to steal their gold. And so, to protect their treasure fleets as well as their new possessions in the New World, the Spanish set up ports all along the coast of Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean.

One major port was the port of San Juan. The city of San Juan was previously called Puerto Rico (“rich port” in Spanish) and the island named San Juan (in honor of St. John the Baptist) but at some point, the names switched to what we have today. With a name like Puerto Rico, pirates soon targeted the island in search of spoils, and with the assent of the town, the Spanish began to fortify the island. They built castle forts on the island like the Castillo de San Cristobal and La Fortaleza, now the Governor’s residence, but none were as impressive as the Castillo de San Felipe del Morro.

Photo by zapata13007 on Adobe Stock

El Morro Castle

Also known as El Morro Castle, the Castillo de San Felipe del Morro faces the Atlantic Ocean; its ominous cannon laden sea walls ever on the lookout for enemies as it guards the entrance to San Juan Harbor. Construction first began over 400 years ago in 1539 under the orders of King Charles V, but its final design didn’t become complete until 1587. This formidable stone fortress, one of the largest fortifications built by Spain in the New World, rises in six staggered levels from sea level with impregnable sea walls hugging the “el morro” or rocky promontory. Unlike the castles of the Middle Ages defended by arrows and swords, guns and cannons protected the citadel. Even today, cannons line all along the ramparts adding firepower to its arsenal and garitas (sentry turrets) look out to the sea which were used as lookout points for enemy vessels during the Castillo’s heyday. A lighthouse was first built atop the Castillo in 1848 but was destroyed by the United States during the Spanish American War. The United States built a second lighthouse on the citadel shortly after wresting the castle from Spain in 1898, and these lighthouses provided a point of reference not found in the other castle forts of Puerto Rico.

Photo by posh on Adobe Stock

Inside, the Castillo contains military rooms like a barracks and storehouses for guns and ammunition as well as a chapel for worship. The lower levels, however, has dungeons to house prisoners although they weren’t built as “dungeons” but merely rooms in the lower levels converted to prisons. A main plaza can be found in the middle of the Castillo used for military parades or a place for soldiers to gather. The Castillo’s well can also be found in the Main Plaza.

Photo by demerzel21 on Bigstock

Wars and Battles

Over the years, El Morro Castle has seen its share of battles. Not counting random pirate skirmishes, The British and the Dutch have tried to take the castle during the Age of Exploration. Sir Francis Drake, himself commanding a fleet, tried to take the castle but failed in his attempt. The Duke of Cumberland, George Clifford, did try and succeeded in taking the Castillo when he attacked in a surprise attack over land but only held the fort for six months. A dysentery epidemic decimated his ranks and led to the Duke’s defeat in 1598. The Spanish built city walls and another castle, the Castillo de San Cristobal, to protect the landward side of the city.

It was America, however, who finally took the Castillo. With cries of “To Hell with Spain, Remember the Maine” in reference to the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor whether from an accident or by Spanish treachery, the American fleet attacked San Juan during the Spanish American War. American generals correctly saw Puerto Rico as an important waystation for the Spanish fleet where they could rest and restock from the long voyage from far-away Spain. In May of 1898, under the command of Rear Admiral William T. Sampson, the warships the Detroit, the Indiana, the Terror, his flagship the Yale, and other ships bombarded El Morro Castle. The Spanish defended the castle as best they could firing cannons from atop its ramparts and inside its walls, but America’s firepower was too much for the aging fort. Sampson’s fleet destroyed huge portions of the Castillo and with Spanish defenses in Puerto Rico neutralized, America then set up a blockade of the island.

The Spanish American War ended with a resounding Spanish defeat, and they were forced to cede their possessions of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to America. Cuba became an American protectorate and gained independence in 1902. The Bombardment of San Juan was the last time the Castillo de San Felipe del Morro saw battle.

Today, the Castillo de San Felipe del Morro is now a national park. Visitors who visit Old San Juan can pay for an affordable annual pass and see the Castillo and other sites in the San Juan National Historic Site. Though in retirement, the Castillo de San Felipe del Morro still guards the entrance to San Juan Bay to this day, a magnificent and fateful castle in the American territory of Puerto Rico.

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Castillo San Felipe del Morro

For the fort in the Dominican Republic known as El Morro de San Felipe, see Fortaleza San Felipe.

Castillo San Felipe del Morro also known as Fort San Felipe del Morro or Morro Castle, a 16th century citadel located in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Contents

Development

Lying on the northwest point of the islet of Old San Juan, Castillo San Felipe del Morro is named after King Philip II of Spain. The fortification, also referred to as El Morro or «the headland», was designed to guard the entrance to San Juan Bay and protect the Spanish colonial port city of San Juan from naval enemies.

In 1983, El Castillo was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations in association with the San Juan National Historic Site. Over two million visitors a year explore the Castillo, making it one of the leading tourist attractions in Puerto Rico. Facing the structure, on the opposite side of the bay, a smaller fortification known as El Canuelo is complemented by the defenses of the Castillo at the entrance to the bay.

Deployment structure

Landing

Construction of the Castillo San Felipe del Morro and its surrounding walls began in 1539, when King Charles V of Spain commissioned its construction. The goal was to protect the port of San Juan by controlling the entrance to its harbor. In order to have a viable defense while the rest of the fort was completed, a small proto-fortress was built during the first year of construction. This section is believed to contain about 10% of the entire structure. But it wasn’t until 1587 that the engineers Juan de Tejada and Juan Bautista Antonelli drew the final design for the fort, which was based on established Spanish military fortification principles of the times. Thus, similar Spanish fortifications of the 17th-18th centuries can be found in Cuba, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, Veracruz and Acapulco, Mexico, Portobelo and Panama City, Panama and many other Latin American places that were part of the Spanish Empire during the Age study. Many intricate additional new structures were added to El Morro over the next 400 years to keep up with new military technology. For example, El Morro’s outer walls, which were originally built six meters thick, were enlarged to 18 feet (5.5 m) thick before the end of the 18th century. Also in 1680, Governor Enrique Henriques de Sotomayor began construction of the wall surrounding the city of San Juan, which took 48 years to build. Castillo was part of the four lines of defense along with San Cristobal Castle, being the fortress of San Geronimo and the San Antonio bridge first line. Today, El Morro has six levels that rise from sea level to 145 feet (44 m) in height. Collectively, the walls saw domes covered with guard boxes known as garitas, which have become a cultural symbol of Puerto Rico itself. El Morro or Port of San Juan Light was built on top of the Castillo in 1843, but in 1908 year, it was replaced by the US military with the current lighthouse. The original lighthouse was destroyed by an American warship fire in an 1898 bombardment of the city. Including outdoor open killing grounds known as glacis and esplanades, dominated by cannons in the 17th and 18th centuries, El Morro can be said to cover over 70 acres (280,000 m?).

History

Cannonballs made of stone, iron and lead (16th)

Spanish Rule (1539-1898)

El Morro

During the Spanish occupation of the island, El Morro survived several attacks from foreign powers on various occasions. In 1595 the Englishman Sir Francis Drake attacked San Juan with his fleet. He failed, however, as the Spanish gunners fired their cannon through their cabin. In 1598 the English attacked again, led by George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland. Clifford succeeded because he attacked San Juan from the ground rather than enter through San Juan Bay. However, an epidemic of dysentery forced him to flee the island.

The Dutch, led by Boudewijn Hendricksz, also attacked the island following George Clifford’s idea of ​​invading the land. To the amazement of the citizens, the invaders were able to pass in front of the castle’s defenders and into the harbor, where the city’s cannon fire could not reach them. El Morro managed to resist the siege and eventually made the Dutch retire, although they were able to sack and burn the town before leaving.

El Morro’s most active fighting in the past occurred during a naval bombardment by the US Navy during 1898 Spanish-American War. The end of the age of naval warfare in the Caribbean, at least in the classical sense. During the Spanish-American War, the castle was attacked no less than three times by American naval forces, the largest of which was the Bombardment of San Juan on May 12, 1898.

Short The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Spain ceded ownership of the islands of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam and the Philippines to the US.

American military occupation (1898-1961)

El Morro and many other Spanish government buildings in Old San Juan then became part of a large US Army post called Fort Brook. In the early 20th century, the US military replenished the esplanade, or green space in front of El Morro with baseball diamonds, hospitals, quarters, an officer’s club and even a golf course. from the Castillo battery in 1915. March 21, 19For 15 years Lieutenant Teofilo Marxuach was the officer of the day at El Morro Castle. The Odenwald, built in 1903 (not to be confused with the German World War II warship that bore the same name), was an armed German supply ship that attempted to break out of the bay and deliver supplies to German U-boats waiting in the Atlantic Ocean. Lieutenant Marxuach gave the order to open fire on the ship. Odenwald was forced to return and his supplies were confiscated. [3] The shots ordered by Lieutenant Marxuach were considered as the first US military discharge in World War I. The first real US military discharged shot came in the daytime war was announced during the sinking of SMS Cormoran off another small American island, Guam.

During World War II, the US Army used the massive concrete bunker at the top of El Morro to serve as the Harbor Defense Fire Control Station to direct a network of coastal artillery sites, and to keep an eye on German submarines that were raging shipping in the Caribbean. The lighthouse, restored by the US Army in 1906-08 is the highest point on El Morro, standing at 180 feet (55 m) above sea level. The flagpoles on El Morro today are usually the flag of the United States, the Puerto Rican flag and the Burgundy Cross Mark, also known in Spanish as las Aspas de Borgona, a standard that was widely used by Spanish troops around the world from 1506-1785.

National Park (1961-present)

In 1961, the US Army officially withdrew from El Morro. The «fort» became part of the National Park Service to be preserved as museums. In 1983, the Castillo and the city walls were declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations. In honor of the Quincentennial of the voyages of Columbus in 1992, the outer esplanade was cleared of palm trees that had been planted by the US Army during the Fort Brook era, and restored to an open exterior that «field-of-fire» for El Morro’s cannon would have had in the colonial Spanish times. Car parks and paved roads were also removed, and the El Morro lighthouse was repaired and restored to its original state. El Morro has been used as a film set in 19 motion pictures96 Amistad. Steven Spielberg used it to represent a fort in Sierra Leone where African slaves were auctioned off in 1839. African slave labor was used to supplement the local labor force to help build the Castillo. El Morro was a defensive military fortification and a major component of San Juan’s harbor defense system. Puerto Rico as such was considered by the Spanish crown as «the key to the Antilles»; no enemy ship could navigate its waters without fear of capture.

View of the entrance of El Morro at

Historical timeline

One of the many iconic garitas Castillo San Felipe del Morro lighthouse. Castillo San Felipe del Morro Side view of the Light house of Castillo San Felipe del Morro and side walls.

1493 — Spanish settlers from Caparra found San Juan.

1508 — Spanish colonized area

1539 — Construction of the first port defenses on El Morro and La Fortaleza, authorized by King Charles V.

1587 — Engineers Juan de Tejada and Juan Bautista Antonelli lay out the main design for El Morro still seen today.

1589 — Governor Diego Menendez begins new construction in El Morro.

1595 — Sir Francis Drake attacks El Morro unsuccessfully by sea. Gunners from El Morro fire a cannonball into the cabin of Drake’s flagship. To prevent Drake’s ships from entering the bay, a metal chain was drawn across the entrance. Drake was defeated and many of his ships were sunk.

1598 — George Clifford, Duke of Cumberland, attacks from the ground side in June of this year, the only time El Morro has been taken in combat. English troops move into the fortress, however weakened by dysentery they leave in November.

1625 — The Dutch under Captain Enrico Balduíno (also known as Boudewijn Hendricksz / Bowdoin Henrick) attacked and invaded San Juan from «La Puntilla». El Morro held out under the leadership of the Spanish Governor De Haro and Captain Juan de Amezquita of the Puerto Rican militia, but the city was sacked and burned.

1630 — Governor Enrique Henriques de Sotomayor begins construction of the city walls. Work continues until 1678 to completely encircle the city.

1765 — After the siege of Havana in 1762 by the British, King Charles III appoints Field Marshal Alejandro O’Reilly (Alexander O’Reilly) and Royal Engineer Tomasz O’Daly (Thomas O’Daly) to reform the fortifications of San Juan and reorganize the garrison to make the city «First Order Defense».

1787 -. Earthquake damages structure like San Felipe del Morro and San Cristobal [4]

1797 — Ralph Abercrombie (General Ralph Abercrombie) and Henry Harvey (Admiral Henry Harvey), with a force of 7,000-13,000 men, invaded the island of Puerto Rico. Captain-General Don Ramon de Castro and his forces repelled the attack. Abercrombie and Harvey were defeated. This was to be one of the largest invasions of Spanish territories in the Americas.

1825 — Notorious Puerto Rican pirate, Roberto Cofresi was imprisoned and executed within the walls of the fort.

1843 — The first lighthouse in Puerto Rico is built on top of the castle.

1898 — May 12 US Navy warships shell El Morro in a one-day bombardment, damaging the tip of the main battery. Six months later, Puerto Rico becomes a US territory under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ends in the Spanish-American War.

1899 — The Department of the Navy rebuilds the lighthouse tower as an octagonal reinforced concrete structure using an iron structure as reinforcement. Installed a new stepped lens. K 1906 crack, through and around the top of the tower, right under the lantern requires its demolition.

1908 — presently seen beacon on top of El Morro built by US Navy.

1915 — First World War I shots fired by Lieutenant Teofilo Marxuach on behalf of the United States. Marxuach, a native of Arroyo, Puerto Rico, fired the first shot at what is believed to be the first World War I shot fired by the regular United States military against any vessel sailing in the colors of the Central Powers. [5] Marxuach, who was a member of the «Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry» and Officer of the Day, 25 March 1915th opened fire on the Odenwald, an armed German supply vessel, as it tried to break out of San Juan Bay.

1942 — El Morro was still an active military post during World War II. The US Army added concrete artillery observation posts and an underground bunker at El Morro to guard against possible German attacks.

Established, San Juan National Historic Site — 1949.

1961 — The US Army moves out of the forts of Old San Juan, and they become the jurisdiction of the US National Park Service, to be preserved only as museums.

1983 — San Juan National Historic Site listed as a World Heritage Site by the United Nations.

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