Bandera de dorado: Bandera de Dorado Puerto Rico

Dorado

Dorado, Puerto Rico

El pueblo de Dorado se sitúa en la costa norte de Puerto Rico. Su superficie abarca 60.9 kilómetros cuadrados (23.5 millas2). Es conocido como la “Ciudad más limpia de Puerto Rico” y la “Ciudad dorada”. Según el censo de 2000, su población general era de 34,017 doradeños. Sus barrios son: Dorado Pueblo, Espinosa, Higuillar, Maguayo, Mameyal y Río Lajas. Su patrón es San Antonio de Padua.

Hoy en día, la economía de Dorado gira alrededor de la industria hotelera, la farmacéutica y la manufactura de equipos electrónicos. Por otra parte, el municipio ha permanecido activo en el ámbito agropecuario, con la siembra de frutos menores y con la tradicional industria ganadera, dedicada a la producción de carne y leche para el País. Por último, la industria de la construcción, también, constituye una importante fuente de empleos.

Geografía

Este municipio se encuentra situado en la costa norte, formando parte de los Llanos Costaneros del Norte. Limita por el norte con el océano Atlántico, con el pueblo de Toa Alta por el sur, por el este con Toa Baja y por el oeste con Vega Alta. La mayor parte de su territorio es llano, por debajo de los 328 pies (100 metros). Por ejemplo, los cerros de Higuillar (barrio Higuillar) sólo alcanzan 262 pies (80 metros) de altura sobre el nivel del mar. Hacia el sur se pueden divisar elevaciones que alcanzan los 656 pies (200 metros). Pero la principal característica del paisaje doradeño son los mogotes o pepinos propios de la región cárstica. En su costa, destacan las puntas: Mameyes, Fraile y Boca Juana. En el barrio Maguayo, en un mogote de unos 100 pies (30 metros) de altura se encuentra la cueva Las Golondrinas.

Su sistema hidrográfico se compone del Río de la Plata (antiguamente llamado Toa) y sus afluentes los ríos Cocal, Nuevo y Lajas. En las proximidades de las desembocaduras de estos ríos hay manglares –de las variedades rojo o colorado, negro y blanco– que alcanzan extensiones entre 42 y 118 hectáreas. Por otro lado, en el barrio Higuillar, muy cerca de la costa, se encuentra la laguna Mata Redonda y el pantano Punta Fraile.

 

El origen del nombre de Dorado no está claro. Sobre éste, existen al menos dos teorías. Una menciona que el pueblo lleva su nombre en honor a una familia del poblado, mientras que la segunda teoría argumenta que el nombre alude a las arenas doradas que se encuentran en sus playas.

En 1831, Dorado forma parte del municipio de Toa Baja. El barrio había crecido lo suficiente hasta formar su propio centro poblado. A éste le llamaban el nuevo pueblo para distinguirlo del viejo centro de Toa Baja. Años más tarde, los residentes de los barrios de Dorado, Iguillar, Mameya y otros sectores pertenecientes a Toa Baja formularon una petición al gobernador para establecer un municipio independiente. En 1842, el gobernador Santiago Méndez Vigo autorizó la fundación del pueblo con la condición de que se realizarán las obras necesarias y se deslindara el territorio de los barrios: Dorado Pueblo, Espinosa, Iguillar, Maguayo, Mameya y Río Lajas. A la altura de 1878, Dorado había sufrido cambios en sus barrios. El barrio Mameya había desaparecido e Iguillar pasó a llamarse Jiguillar. Años después, el barrio Mameya reapareció bajo el nombre de Mameyal y Jiguillar cambió a Higuillar. A lo largo de su desarrollo Dorado dependió de una economía agrícola concentrada en el cultivo de caña de azúcar, la producción de algunos frutos menores, la ganadería y la pesca. Había en funcionamiento varios ingenios azucareros y se fabricaban tejas y ladrillos.

En 1902, bajo la Ley para Consolidación de Ciertos Términos Municipales, Dorado pasó a ser parte del municipio de Toa Alta. Posteriormente, una Ley de la Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico dispuso que Dorado recuperara su carácter de municipio independiente con los mismos barrios y límites que tenía antes de 1902.

Símbolos

Bandera
La bandera oficial del municipio de Dorado se compone de tres franjas de igual anchura, siendo de color oro la superior y la inferior. La banda central es color marrón y finaliza en un triángulo isósceles en el extremo izquierdo. Esta banda contiene cinco flores de lis. El color oro simboliza el nombre de la ciudad: Dorado, el color plateado alude al Río de la Plata, mientras que el marrón representa a su patrón, San Antonio de Padua.

Escudo
El escudo de Dorado consta de un paño dorado con cinco roeles color marrón, colocados en forma de T, en alusión a la letra griega tau; ésta, a su vez, representa a San Antonio de Padua. El centro de cada roel lo ocupa una flor de lis plateada. El color dorado representa directamente el nombre del pueblo mientras que el color marrón y la flor de lis refieren al santo patrón del pueblo. El color plateado de las flores simboliza el Río de la Plata, el cual bordea el pueblo de Dorado por el este. Rodea el escudo un cintillo plateado en el cual se lee “Gobierno Municipal de Dorado”. Finaliza el escudo una corona mural como distintivo de municipalidad.

 

El origen del nombre de Dorado no está claro. Sobre éste, existen al menos dos teorías. Una menciona que el pueblo lleva su nombre en honor a una familia del poblado, mientras que la segunda teoría argumenta que el nombre alude a las arenas doradas que se encuentran en sus playas.

En 1831, Dorado forma parte del municipio de Toa Baja. El barrio había crecido lo suficiente hasta formar su propio centro poblado. A éste le llamaban el nuevo pueblo para distinguirlo del viejo centro de Toa Baja. Años más tarde, los residentes de los barrios de Dorado, Iguillar, Mameya y otros sectores pertenecientes a Toa Baja formularon una petición al gobernador para establecer un municipio independiente. En 1842, el gobernador Santiago Méndez Vigo autorizó la fundación del pueblo con la condición de que se realizarán las obras necesarias y se deslindara el territorio de los barrios: Dorado Pueblo, Espinosa, Iguillar, Maguayo, Mameya y Río Lajas. A la altura de 1878, Dorado había sufrido cambios en sus barrios. El barrio Mameya había desaparecido e Iguillar pasó a llamarse Jiguillar. Años después, el barrio Mameya reapareció bajo el nombre de Mameyal y Jiguillar cambió a Higuillar. A lo largo de su desarrollo Dorado dependió de una economía agrícola concentrada en el cultivo de caña de azúcar, la producción de algunos frutos menores, la ganadería y la pesca. Había en funcionamiento varios ingenios azucareros y se fabricaban tejas y ladrillos.

En 1902, bajo la Ley para Consolidación de Ciertos Términos Municipales, Dorado pasó a ser parte del municipio de Toa Alta. Posteriormente, una Ley de la Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico dispuso que Dorado recuperara su carácter de municipio independiente con los mismos barrios y límites que tenía antes de 1902.

Símbolos

Bandera
La bandera oficial del municipio de Dorado se compone de tres franjas de igual anchura, siendo de color oro la superior y la inferior. La banda central es color marrón y finaliza en un triángulo isósceles en el extremo izquierdo. Esta banda contiene cinco flores de lis. El color oro simboliza el nombre de la ciudad: Dorado, el color plateado alude al Río de la Plata, mientras que el marrón representa a su patrón, San Antonio de Padua.

Escudo
El escudo de Dorado consta de un paño dorado con cinco roeles color marrón, colocados en forma de T, en alusión a la letra griega tau; ésta, a su vez, representa a San Antonio de Padua. El centro de cada roel lo ocupa una flor de lis plateada. El color dorado representa directamente el nombre del pueblo mientras que el color marrón y la flor de lis refieren al santo patrón del pueblo. El color plateado de las flores simboliza el Río de la Plata, el cual bordea el pueblo de Dorado por el este. Rodea el escudo un cintillo plateado en el cual se lee “Gobierno Municipal de Dorado”. Finaliza el escudo una corona mural como distintivo de municipalidad.

Texto tomado de la enciclopediapr.org

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el Loco, el Tirano, el Peregrino (part III)

Raymond Ramsey, with whose book we began our story, about Pedro de Ursua wrote: he wasn’t strong enough to manage a team of thugs.»
With such a superficial assessment of events, I allow myself to disagree.
The expedition to Eldorado was originally planned to be led by Gomez de Alvarado, brother of the great Pedro — «son of the sun» (as the Indians called him for the color of his hair, or simply «red» from the detachment of Cortes). But to the viceroy, he seemed an unreliable caballero. For during the period of civil wars that shook Peru in the dashing forties and fifties of the 16th century, Gomez spun like a weather vane, indecisively rushing from camp to camp in the desire not to miscalculate and join the winner.
Against its background, the thirty-year-old «handsome» Don Pedro de Ursua looked «a model of chivalry» — as described by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. A good education in him was combined with an accommodating nature, outstanding valor and skills in military affairs.

Unlike Gómez de Alvarado, the young aristocrat Pedro de Ursúa decisively and brutally helped to suppress the rebellions of the supporters of Gonzalo Pizarro; pacified the unrest of the Chilatera, Musa and Tyrone Indians; and even coped with the uprising of runaway black slaves who managed to create their own enclave in the Spanish Maine (!) with a «king» named Bayamo. Moreover, in the latter case, Ursua showed rare miracles of deceit when he went with them to the world (because the war had dragged on for a year and a half), staged a celebration on this occasion and imperceptibly poured poison into a treat for gullible guests. Some of the close associates of the Negro «king» died on the spot, others were seized and given to be torn to pieces by dogs, and «His Majesty» Bayamo was suddenly executed.

When appointing the commander, the viceroy undoubtedly took into account the fact that in 1550 Pedro de Ursua had already applied for an expedition to Eldorado, but in the conditions of the then raging civil war, he was refused.
And now, don Pedro has deservedly been awarded the rank of captain general! In addition, the Marquis de Cañete gave him the title of governor of the future province of Eldorado in advance with the right to appoint officials, build settlements, take care of the conquered Indians and «do everything for the good of the church and the crown of Spain.» It is impossible not to take into account the fact that one of the goals of the expedition was the desire of the authorities to at least somehow occupy the poor, but proud Spanish hidalgos, by removing the adventurers from home. Everyone was fed up with their endless turmoil, fermentation and vacillation in Peru!
However, the law-abiding residents of Lima immediately disliked the Eldorado idea, since, as already mentioned, the costs of it were partially covered by the state treasury, which automatically meant an increase in taxes.

But the money came not only from the state. One parish priest named Portillo from the village of Moyobamba, being rich (like all the «poor» ministers of the church in the Middle Ages), promised to give Pedro de Ursua a loan of 2000 pesos if he took him as a priest on an expedition, to which he immediately received consent . The young governor, believing that the money was already in his pocket, recklessly bought all sorts of things on credit. When the hour of reckoning came, it suddenly became clear that the holy father had changed his mind about going on a campaign and was refusing monetary obligations. Don Pedro did not expect such meanness from a minister of the church. Angry, he did not think of anything smarter than to send the mulatto Pedro de Miranda to lure the priest out of bed at night under the pretext of confessing his dying deputy Juan de Vargas, and when the half-dressed Portillo ran to the church, the governor’s confidants were waiting for him: quite healthy Juan de Vargas , Don Fernando de Guzman, Juan Alonso de La Bandera and Pero Alonso Casco. Pointing arquebuses with lit wicks at the churchman, a bunch of defilers demanded that Portillo sign an order for the payment of 2,000 pesos to a merchant with whom the priest, according to their information, kept the money. But it was only an advance! Not even allowing him to get dressed, they put him on a horse and forcibly brought him to Motilones, where they forced him to pay another 3,000 pesos forfeit.

As you can see, there is no need to talk about the high moral principles of some «voyagers». Even criminals enjoyed the right of inviolability in the church! And here, with this thoughtless trick, our caballeros almost threw a garrote (noose) around their necks. But Portillo humbly accepted the lesson of business commerce, as was customary among the conquistadors, and did not hand over any of the night guests to the authorities.

Nevertheless, about 370 Spaniards (according to the chronicle of Pedro Simon), who survived countless Peruvian uprisings and scandals, like our hero Lope de Aguirre, joined Pedro de Ursua, and with them several hundred Indians. In addition, there were those who were tempted to accompany the beautiful half-breed, Ursua’s mistress — Ines de Atiensu on the campaign. In the 1550s she was famous as «the most beautiful woman of Peru», which did not stop her from being widowed by by 1559. It is obvious that the journey through the Amazon seemed to Don Pedro a pleasant and exciting walk, since he «against popular opinion» took with him the lady of the heart with a dozen of her servants (mostly mestizos and a few black slaves) with all their outfits and luxury items , desiring, apparently, upon arrival in Eldorado, to establish his own court. To be honest, this women’s camp «extremely upset most of the troops.»
And that’s putting it mildly!
You will probably be very surprised , but there was also a young daughter among the mestizos (!) Lope de Aguirre Elvira under the supervision of two duenes, in which our caring father did not look for souls. Where and when she was born is unknown. She herself was probably on the staff of the «maid of honor» Ines de Atines. The girl was distinguished by exceptional modesty, always kept aloof, did not take part in her father’s affairs and did not try to get out on the pages of the chronicles.

Agree, such a colorful «Pirate Gang» would decorate any book about marine robbers, even the most children!

As already noted in the first part, the expedition was reflected in a series of chronicles written by direct participants in the campaign. This is «A short report on the most important thing that happened during the expedition of the governor of Ursua and on the rebellion of Lope de Aguirra» Pedro de Mongia, «A very true report on everything that happened on the Marañon River and in the province of Dorado» Gonzalo de Suniga, «Expedition to the Maranjon River and other significant events that occurred in the India» Toribio de Ortiger, «Chronicle of the expedition in the Drado» Custodio Ernandes, «Maranenon» Diego de Aguilar y Córdoba, «Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre» Pedro Simona. Many of them were published in the book «Lope de Aguirre. Cronicas», Barcelona, ​​1981 and never published in Russian.

But there is one chronicle, according to historians the most detailed and best, soldier Francisco Vasquez, which was published in Russian in the translation by A.F. Kofman in 2009 . in the book «Conquistadors. Three Chronicles of the Conquest of America». Its full name is: «A true report about what happened during the expedition to the countries of Omagua and Dorado, in search of which, at the behest of the Viceroy Marquis de Cañete, Governor Pedro de Ursua from Peru along the Amazon River, otherwise called the river Marañon, which originates in Peru and flows into the sea near Brazil. The report also tells of the rebellion of Don Fernando de Guzmán and Lope de Aguirre, and of the cruelties committed by these infamous tyrants.»
The original manuscript is thought to be lost, but the 18th century edition is preserved in the library of the cathedral in Seville.
This is our main historical source, and we will often refer to and quote from it in the course of the study.

«True relational …» Francisco Vasquez

Let the word Francisco Vasquez:

«At the beginning of 1559, Pedo de Ursuu announced his enterprise throughout the pen, after which he left from Lima, accompanied by shipbuilders, taking with him a lot of all kinds of tools, nails and resin and other things needed for building ships, and went to the province of Motilones in the east of Peru, where a large river flows, and, finding the most convenient place, laid the shipyards in Spanish settlement of Santa Cruz de Capocovar, and he returned to Lima to recruit people and buy everything necessary for the expedition.

Spanish Main shipyard, 16th century engraving.

«The expedition recruited three hundred Spaniards (Pedro Simon has 370 — note my ) , and in addition to them blacks and other servants. The soldiers were well equipped, armed and one hundred arquebuses, forty crossbows, and to them a fair supply of gunpowder, lead, saltpeter and sulfur.

«While the governor was recruiting people and buying everything he needed, shipbuilders and officers, whom he left in the shipyards, built eleven ships of large and small size, including several wide and flat boats, called punts, each of which could take on board from thirty to forty horses, and a lot of belongings and people were placed on the stern and bow.

Types of punts, 16th century engraving.

But due to the long gathering, negligence of shipbuilders and rainy weather, the ships rotted, and when they were launched, most of them fell apart, only 9 remained0003 two brigantines and three punts, and even those in such a deplorable condition that during loading they leaked and fell apart, therefore only for one , the strongest punt, we were able to load twenty-seven horses, and the rest of the horses — there were a lot of them — set free.

Transportation of horses in the Spanish Maine, fragment of a 16th century engraving.

Everyone understood how dangerous it is for life to float on fragile ships along the most powerful river; besides people were embittered by the fact that they had to leave a lot of horses, cattle, clothes and other necessary things on the shore that did not fit on rafts, and therefore unrest and conspiracies were brewing in the army, and many wanted to return to Peru. The governor ordered the arrest of some troublemakers, preferred to ignore some, and, in order to avoid wholesale desertion, accelerated the collection, so that September 26, 1560 we finally set off.

To be continued…0008

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