Oldest state in the world: San Marino, the world’s oldest country

San Marino, the world’s oldest country

Visiting San Marino

From high up on the hill, looking out over the countryside and towards the ocean, you can see why the residents of San Marino have tried so hard over the centuries to keep their land.

It’s a stunning view, witnessed from a beautiful city that has maintained its historic charm.

It’s hard to imagine how they managed to keep their country intact, though, considering the wars and invasions that have bloodied the lands around them.

San Marino is the oldest sovereign state in the world, having been founded in 301AD. But it’s also one of the smallest – about 60 square kilometres (or 24 square miles).

It’s this size which has helped protect the country because it’s never been seen as a true threat or as a large enough area to bother conquering. Enclosed entirely within Italy, it’s also been protected geographically from many potential aggressors.

The capital of San Marino (imaginatively called San Marino City) is high on a mountain top, surrounded by stone towers linked with bridges and reached through narrow winding roads or staircases cut through buildings.

San Marino City looks down benevolently on the rural citizens as they gaze up at the seat of government that has kept them in an idealistic republic for so long.

Oldest and smallest countries

When a country is so small it’s easy to manage the affairs and keep things in control. It means San Marino can lay claim to a number of impressive facts:

  • It is the oldest surviving sovereign state in the world
  • It has the world’s oldest constitution
  • It has no national debt and a budget surplus
  • It has the fifth highest life expectancy in the world
  • It has no military forces

Officially the country is called The Most Serene Republic of San Marino. I guess it’s not too hard to be serene when you only have 30,000 citizens.

I wonder whether everybody who lives there knows each other – surely it wouldn’t take too long to get to know all the neighbours.

Coming from Australia, I find it such a strange situation to be able to stand at the peak of a tower and actually see an entire country.

It’s surreal but also quite an exciting thing to do from the ancient watchtowers and battlements of the historic capital. (And it’s especially fun if you pretend you are a king or a queen surveying your land.)

Tourism in San Marino

As far as tourism goes, the industry only makes up about two per cent of the national GDP – and much of that is from Italians. This is not a country on the radar of most international travellers (I’d be surprised if it comes up on any radar, it’s so small).

And therein lies much of the charm.

During the day it’s relatively busy with the bus tours coming in from nearby Italian holiday cities. By the time the sun starts to go down, the capital is almost deserted.

I was able to walk along the city’s walls almost alone as the sky turned orange. The restaurants with views out across the plains were quiet and peaceful.

The old city was mine and only mine to enjoy.

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Oldest States 2022

Oldest States 2022

The oldest states in the United States in 2022 are primarily on the Eastern seaboard. There are many reasons why these states have the median ages they do, and the demographics of an older population. Maine is the state with the oldest population. The top ten states in America that are considered the oldest states and their median ages are as follows:

  • Maine (45 years)
  • New Hampshire (43 years)
  • Vermont (43 years)
  • West Virginia (43 years)
  • Florida (42 years)
  • Connecticut (41 years)
  • Delaware (41 years)
  • Pennsylvania (41 years)
  • Massachusetts (40 years)
  • Michigan (40 years)

Maine – Baby Boomer Population

Maine is the oldest state in the nation with a median age of 45 years. It is considered the oldest because it has a high percentage of baby boomers or people between 45 years old and 64 years old. There is a very low percentage of people under the age of 44 in Maine.

Some experts refer to this as a surplus of baby boomers, a trend that is seen in many Eastern states.

New Hampshire – Late Middle-Agers

The state of New Hampshire has a very similar demographic to Maine. With a population of over 1.3 million, New Hampshire has a largely middle-age population. This is another state where there is fewer youth than the middle-agers and elderly population.

In New Hampshire, it is estimated that 21 percent of the population is under 18, 65 percent is between 18 and 64, and 13 percent of the population is over 65.

Vermont – Getting Older

Vermont is a state that is said to be getting older every year. It is estimated that over half the population of Vermont is over the age of 43. Compared to the nation’s average of 15 percent of the population over 65 years old, Vermont has over 18.7 percent of the population over 65 years old.

It is estimated that one in every five people in Vermont is over 65 years, and this is what is throwing the median age off to make Vermont the third-largest state. Florida is the fourth oldest state in the union, trailing just behind Vermont with a median age of 42 years. These states with the median age also have a significant portion of the demographic eligible for Medicare, with many experts predicting the number in Vermont will increase to one out of every four people there being over the age of 65.

Here are the 10 states with the highest median ages:

  1. Maine — 44.8 years
  2. New Hampshire — 43 years
  3. Vermont — 42.8 years
  4. West Virginia — 42.7 years
  5. Florida — 42.2 years
  6. Connecticut — 41.1 years
  7. Delaware — 41 years
  8. Pennsylvania — 40.9 years
  9. Montana — 40.1 years
  10. New Jersey — 40 years

Oldest States 2022


Oldest States 2022

Oldest States 2022

List of the 10 most ancient states

It is believed that the most ancient states on Earth appeared more than 6000 years ago, but the most ancient ones, about which at least something is known, could not survive to this day. This list of the 10 most ancient states includes only those that have survived to one degree or another, they are like a bridge from modernity to hoary antiquity.

1. Elam (Iran, 5200 years)

The state of the Islamic Republic of Iran, located in southwestern Asia, appeared on April 1, 1979 years after the Islamic Revolution. In fact, Iran is one of the oldest states in the world. For thousands of years, Iran has been the key monarchy of the East. The ancient state of Elam, which preceded Iran, arose here about 5200 years ago. Under Darius I, the Iranian empire extended from the Indus River to Libya and Hellas. Yes, and in the Middle Ages, Iran was quite an influential and powerful state.

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2. Egypt (5000 years)

hotels of Egypt

This is the oldest of the states that bore the same name, and about which a large amount of historical information has been preserved. In the ancient country of countless dynasties of pharaohs, the most magnificent examples of art and culture were born, many of them were adopted by the peoples of Asia and Europe. They also formed the basis of ancient aesthetics, which became the source of the development of all modern arts.
Now Egypt is the largest state of the Arab East, an important center of its cultural and political life, a center of attraction for tourists from all over the world. Egypt has a unique geographical position, as it is at the junction of 3 continents — Europe, Africa and Asia, as well as Jewish, Christian and Islamic civilizations. It arose on the lands where before that there was already a certain powerful and mysterious civilization that had its own long history. Pharaoh Mines about 5000 years ago united neighboring lands, forming from them the state of Egypt during the Early Kingdom. This civilization has left us many material monuments — the pyramids, the Sphinx, majestic temples.

3. Greece (5000 years)

hotels of Greece

Greece is the cradle of European civilization. On the island of Crete, about 5,000 years ago, the most ancient Minoan culture was born, which was adopted by the Hellenes and other mainland peoples. It is in Crete that the beginnings of statehood, trade and diplomatic relations with the East can be traced, the first written language arose here.
Aegean civilization, which arose at the end of the third millennium BC. e., already showed clear signs of statehood. The first states on the Aegean Sea, which arose in Crete and the Peloponnese, had the features of oriental despots and a developed bureaucratic structure. Hellas grew quite quickly, spreading its influence and culture to Asia Minor, the northern Black Sea region and southern Italy. By the way, the Greeks themselves still call their country Hellas. They are flattered every time to emphasize the historical connection of today’s Greece with the great ancient era and culture, which became the basis for the entire European civilization.

4. Vanlang (Vietnam, 2897 BC)

Vietnam hotels

Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia, located on the Indochinese peninsula. The name of the country can be translated as «southern country of the Viet». The Viet civilization appeared in the Red River basin, and the legend says that they descended from a fairy bird and a dragon. In 2897 BC. e. the first state of Vanlang was formed on this territory. There was a period when the country was absorbed by China, and towards the end of the 19th century it was taken over by France. Vietnam gained independence at 1954 year.

5. Shang-Yin (China, 3600 years old)

hotels of China

China is located in East Asia and with a population of more than 1. 3 billion people is the largest state in the world, second only to Russia and Canada.
Chinese civilization is one of the oldest. Chinese historians claim that it is over 5,000 years old, although the oldest known written sources of China are about 3,500 years old. During the successive dynasties of emperors, there were always systems of administrative control that improved over the centuries. This gave an advantage to a state based on agriculture, which was surrounded by nomadic peoples or highlanders. An additional cement of statehood was the introduction in the 1st century BC. e. as the state ideology of Confucianism, and a century before that — a unified writing system.
Functioning in the years 1600-1027 BC. e. the state of Shang-Yin should be recognized as the first, the existence of which is confirmed not only by the finds of archaeologists, but also by epigraphic written sources. Emperor Qin Shi Huang brought together in 221 BC. e. Chinese lands to the Qin Empire, whose territory is in many ways comparable to modern China.

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6. Kush (Sudan, 1070 BC)

The area of ​​modern Sudan, located in the African northeast, exceeds the area of ​​Western Europe, and the population does not even reach 30 million inhabitants. It is located in the middle reaches of the Nile, on its coastal plains, as well as the shores of the Red Sea and an elevated plateau.
In the northern part of present-day Sudan in 1070-350 BC. e. there was an ancient Meroitic kingdom or Kush. The found ruins of temples, sculptures of kings and gods testify to its existence. It is assumed that medicine, astronomy were developed in Kush, and there was a written language.

7. Sri Lanka (377 BC)

Sri Lanka hotels Russian as «Blessed Land».

People lived here as early as the Neolithic era, at least the settlements found here date back to this period. Writing, and with it documented history, arose after the settlement of the island by the Aryans from India. They taught the local population not only writing, but also basic knowledge in the field of navigation and metallurgy. In 337 B.C. e. In Sri Lanka, a monarchy was formed, the capital of which was the ancient city of Anuradhapura. In 247, Buddhism came to the island, it was he who turned out to be a decisive factor in the process of forming the state system of the country.

8. Chin (Korea, 300 BC)

Korea hotels

Korea is located on the Korean peninsula and nearby islands. This ancient country has a common cultural and historical heritage. Until relatively recently, it was a single state. After the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II, Korea, which was then a Japanese colony, was divided into areas of responsibility by the victorious countries: the USSR got everything north of the 38th parallel, and the USA got everything south of it. A little later, at 19In 48, two states were proclaimed on both fragments of Korea — the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south.
The Koreans have a legend according to which their state was founded by the son of the god Tangun and the bear woman in 2333 BC. e. Experts call the most ancient stage of Korean history the state of Ko Joseon. True, almost all modern historians consider the legendary age of the country to be greatly exaggerated, at least, no one is in a hurry to present any historical documents confirming this, except for a few medieval chronicles. It is believed that at the beginning of its existence, Joseon was just a tribal union, which included independent city-states. Only around 300 BC. e. it became a centralized state. In the same period, the proto-state of Chin was formed in the south of the Korean Peninsula.

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9. Iberia (Georgia, 299 BC)

hotels Georgia

Relatively recently, Georgia regained its independence. But the history of this ancient state remembers a lot. On its territory are the oldest evidence of the existence of civilization. Georgian historians are sure that the earliest states existed in Georgia in the second and even third millennium BC. e. We are talking about the kingdom of Colchis overlooking the Black Sea coast and Iberia located to the east of it. King Pharnavaz I came to power in Iberia in 299 year. During the reign of him and his closest descendants, Iberia turned into a powerful state, which significantly expanded its territories. In the 9th century, the Georgian principalities were united into a single state, and kings from the Bagrationi branch began to rule it.

10. Greater Armenia (331 BC)

hotels of Armenia e. the formation of the Armenian ethnos began, which ended by the 11th century BC.

e. The main «ingredients» of the Armenian nation were Urartians, Hurrians, Luvians, as well as tribes who spoke the proto-Armenian language. By the IV-II centuries BC. e. the merging of the Urartians with the Armenian ethnos was completed. It is known that in 31-220. BC e. there was the Ayrarat kingdom or Great Armenia with its capital in Armavir, which is located not far from Yerevan. In 316 BC. e. during the reign of the Yervandid dynasty, it became independent.
Then there was a short-lived conquest by the Seleucids, but already in 189 BC. e. Artashes I proclaimed the state of Greater Armenia. As Strabo testifies, already in the time of Artashes, all the inhabitants of Armenia spoke the same Armenian language, although the court and the nobility until the beginning of the 2nd century BC. e. preferred to speak in imperial Aramaic, with a fair amount of Iranian words.
About 163 B.C. e. Commagene also declared its independence. As an independent state, Lesser Armenia was able to exist until 116 BC. e., and then it was captured first by the Pontics, and later they were replaced by the Romans.

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The oldest countries that exist to this day


  1. Egypt
  2. Vietnam
  3. China

  4. Greece
  5. Korea
  6. Irani
  7. Armenia
  8. 0003

    The 19 oldest countries in the world:



    Egyptian kingdom.
    In ancient times, many types of art originated in Egypt, which then spread throughout the world, and became the basis of ancient aesthetics. Some scientific knowledge was also born here.

    The ancient country still keeps many secrets that archaeologists, historians and ethnographers have yet to unravel. Over time, Egypt has become a real Mecca for tourists hurrying ships to touch the ancient history of mankind.

    Egypt is one of the transcontinental states, located on two continents: most of it is in Africa, and the Sinai Peninsula in Asia.



    7 BC the kingdom of Wanlang was formed. The Vietnamese are the direct ancestors of the modern Vietnamese, and one of the legends tells that the people came from the marriage of a dragon and a fairy in the form of a beautiful bird. The Viet engaged in irrigated rice cultivation, and were able to create a highly developed culture.

    Vietnam has gone through a complicated history in its development. It was part of China, then a French colony, and achieved independence only in 1954. But historians clearly trace the connection between the ancient population of Indochina and the modern inhabitants of the South-Eastern country.



    Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in human history. Some scientists estimate its age at 5,000 years, but ancient sources cover a period of no more than 3,500 years.

    Back in the 17th century BC, in the era of the state formation of Shang-Yin, a system of administrative and state administration was formed on the territory of China. The ancient Chinese gave the world many inventions, including gunpowder and paper. Agriculture was developed in the country, which became the basis of the economy.

    In 221 BC Emperor Qin Shi Huang succeeded in uniting all Chinese lands under his rule. The illustrious Qin Empire he created roughly coincided with the modern borders of the country. Today, China is the largest country in terms of population, and one of the most economically developed countries in the world.

    Thebiggest.ru has a very interesting article about the most visited countries in the world, which, of course, includes China.



    The beginnings of statehood originated on the island of Crete 5,000 years ago, during the existence of the Minoan civilization. Actually, the Aegean civilization, already on mainland Europe, originated about 3 thousand years ago.

    Greece, thanks to brave seafarers, created its colonies on the territory of Asia Minor and, in the then occupied by the Scythians, the Northern Black Sea coast. In the Crimea, archaeologists continue to explore the Greek city-states that appeared on the peninsula in the 7th-6th centuries BC.

    Many European powers that emerged after the decline of Antiquity adopted the forms and principles of state building from the Greeks. Therefore, Greece, where high culture and democracy were born, is rightfully affectionately called the cradle of European civilization.



    After the division of 1948, there are two Koreas on the world map, and the first state on the territory of the separated countries was created back in 2333 BC. e.

    According to legend, it was formed when the son of a heavenly deity and a bear, Tangun, turned into a woman and created the first Korean state. Thus, Korean history and political and state life began in the era of the Joseon kingdom.

    The two Koreas followed different paths of political and state development. In recent years, there has been a warming of relations between North and South Korea, and perhaps a renewed united Korea will soon appear.

    Read also: 25 everyday things that are illegal in North Korea.



    The modern Iranian Islamic state was formed in 1979, but the sprouts of the administrative-state system sprouted on the territory of Iran in ancient times.

    The first state formation in these territories was the Median kingdom, formed at the turn of the 8th-7th centuries BC. e. The Median rulers created a strong system of government and a strong army that managed to defeat Assyria.

    Traditions of state administration, founded by the Medes, continued in the powerful medieval Persian state. Iranian territories have experienced many conquests, but the Iranians managed to preserve their original traditions and amazing national culture.



    The first state on the territory of the renewed Armenia is considered to be the Great Kingdom of Arme-Shubria, formed in the XII century BC. But, in fact, Armenian statehood began about 2.5 thousand years ago.

    Ancient Armenia, mentioned in the works of Arab historians, was a kind of union of kingdoms and powers that coexisted in commonwealth or succeeded each other. For the first time, «Armenia» appears in a historical document in 521 BC. It was the Behistun inscription of King Darius I.

    After the fall of the first state formations in the most beautiful valley of the Ararat River, three equal states were formed — Greater Armenia, Sofen and Lesser Armenia.

    To the treasure chest of an erudite : Armenia is one of the Asian landlocked countries.



    The first state associations on the Japanese islands are reported in Chinese historical sources, which date back to the 1st millennium BC. But the beginning of the reign of the first Japanese emperor dates back to 660 BC.
    During this time, there have been no fundamental changes in the borders of the Land of the Rising Sun, there is a dynastic succession, so that Japan can rightfully be considered one of the most ancient states on the planet.

    The Emperor has become a symbol of the state and the unity of the Japanese, which is written in the 1947 Constitution. Throughout their history, the Japanese have been able to create a unique culture and preserve ancient traditions, being considered one of the most conservative nations in the world.

    See also: The largest cities in Japan.


    San Marino

    The list of old states that have already formed in our era is opened by a small country in Southern Europe. One of the smallest countries in the world has been formally independent since September 3, 301.

    According to legend, the history of the European enclave began with a small cell built in the Apennines by the stonemason Marin and his closest associates. The country is surrounded on all sides by Italy. When Italy broke up into small feudal states in the 6th century, San Marino fell under the rule of Urbino, and finally gained independence in 855.

    San Marino still has one of the oldest constitutions in the world, dating back to 1600.



    The history of France began with the creation of the Frankish state by Clovis in 486. It reached its peak under Charlemagne, and in 843, according to the Treaty of Verdun, the state of Clovis broke up into several states.

    This is how the West-Frankish kingdom was formed, which, starting from the 10th century, began to be called France. Its first rulers were representatives of the Carolingian dynasty, and the medieval inhabitants of the country are the direct ancestors of the modern French. The territory of the ancient power roughly coincided with the territories of the modern French Republic.

    The country went through several revolutions, and in 1958 a new constitution was adopted declaring France the Fifth Republic.



    Today’s Bulgaria is the direct successor of the Bulgarian state formations, and the history of the country began far from the borders of Eastern Europe. In 632, Khan Kurbat united the disparate tribes, creating Great Bulgaria in the Volga region.

    After the collapse of the state of Khan Kurbat, part of the Bulgarians became part of the Khazar Khaganate, and part was taken with him beyond the Danube by Khan Asparuh. Here, on the great European river, the Turkic-speaking Bulgarians created their first state in 681. The city of Pliska became the capital of the new formation.

    Throughout history, there have been several Bulgarias, including those with the unusual name of Ottoman Bulgaria. The capital was moved several times until it was moved to Sofia in 1878.



    The European state began as a military base of the Vikings, who, with their raids, terrified all the peoples of medieval Europe. In 950
    , Harald I Blue-tooth became king, who managed to unite the scattered lands into a single powerful state.

    Over time, Christianity began to penetrate the territory of the Jutland peninsula and the nearest islands, which greatly strengthened the royal power. During the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark was an active participant in international events.

    Denmark was among the founders of the NATO military bloc, and since 1973 has been a member of the European Union. According to the form of government, it is a constitutional monarchy, where the monarch exercises power jointly with a unicameral parliament.



    Before Roman domination, the territories of the Iberian Peninsula were captured by the Lusitanians. Then there was a short-lived Arab conquest, and in 1143 the Portuguese kingdom was formed in the southwestern part of the peninsula.

    In the Middle Ages, it was a powerful country with a strong military and merchant fleet. Thanks to its access to the sea, Portugal became the largest colonial power, whose colonies stretched from South America to the islands of Oceania.

    In 1910, as a result of the revolution, Portugal was proclaimed a Republic. Strong parliamentary traditions have been preserved in the country, because the first parliament began its work at the beginning of the 13th century during the reign of King Afonso II.



    The name Andorra was first mentioned in a historical source in 778, and officially the state was formed in 1278. It was in this year that the Comte de Foix agreed with the Spanish Bishop to establish dual sovereignty in Andorra.

    Almost 600 years after this event, the provisions of the Constitution were drafted, and the modern basic law of a small country was adopted in 1993. It is difficult to find this state on the map of Europe, because its area does not exceed 467.6 km², and the country itself is sandwiched on the border of Spain and France.

    The Principality of Andorra has only recently become an active participant in international life, and diplomatic relations with Russia were established only in 1995. According to TheBiggest.ru, visiting Andorra is on one of the lines in the wish list.



    One of the most democratic countries in the world, after all, nationwide referendums are held on almost every important issue of state reorganization in the country.

    According to legend, in the remote green meadow of Rütli, representatives of three communes 1 August 1291 year swore an oath of mutual assistance and cooperation. This date is considered the founding of Switzerland, and the oath was legally confirmed by the signing of the Union Charter.

    After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the country proclaimed eternal neutrality and does not participate in any military-political bloc. Thanks to this, the country avoided participation in the bloody World Wars of the 20th century, and its financial and banking system is considered the most reliable in the world.



    In the 4th millennium BC on the site of modern Israel and Palestine, the power of Canaan is formed, which means «the country of purple.» In historical literature it is also found under the name «Promised Land».

    Throughout history, Palestinian lands were captured by the Romans, European crusaders, and from 1516 to 1917 were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
    After the First World War, Palestine was given a mandate for sovereign rule, but in 1948 the country was taken over by Israel. Since then, the people of Palestine have been fighting to create their own state. Now it is recognized as a state by 137 countries, but it cannot be a member of the UN, since it is not recognized by the USA, Great Britain and France.



    The oldest civilization on the planet originated in the Indus and Ganges valleys in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. It was then that the principles of Indian culture, religious ideas and traditions were laid down, which are still preserved today.

    In the following years, many states existed on the territory of modern India, it survived the Persian and Greek invasion, fell under the influence of Islamists and Moghuls. India became a British colony in the 17th century.

    In 1947, after many years of struggle for liberation from colonial oppression, India declared independence. India today is a dynamically developing country where poverty contrasts sharply with luxury.



    Officially, Iraq gained independence from Great Britain in 1932, but its history goes back to ancient times. The Tigris and Euphrates Valley, where Iraq is now located, became the birthplace of the first civilizations on planet Earth.

    The first large cities of the Sumerian civilization appeared here, later destroyed by the conquerors. In the period of Antiquity, Arabs began to penetrate into the territory of Iraq, and these lands became part of the Arab Caliphate. Later, the territories were owned by the Turks.

    In 1921, the creation of the Kingdom of Iraq was proclaimed, and 11 years later Britain was forced to recognize the independence of the country. The war of the Western coalition has practically destroyed the country, and the Iraqis are forced to rebuild the state again.

    If you want to learn more about the oldest cities in Europe, there is a very interesting article about it on our website.



    In the 3rd millennium, the lands of modern Pakistan became the place for the development of the highly cultured Harappan civilization. Then the Aryans came here, who brought with them the beginnings of statehood.

    In the Middle Ages, Pakistan fell under the rule of the Mongol Empire, and after its collapse, it became part of the Mughal Empire. In the 19th century, the colonial power of Great Britain extended to the lands of Pakistan. At 1947 India becomes independent, and the Muslim League seeks the creation of an independent state of Pakistan.

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