Porque se iza la bandera a media asta: Banderas a media asta se despliegan como símbolo de tristeza – The Nevada Independent

Banderas a media asta se despliegan como símbolo de tristeza – The Nevada Independent

Esta nota fue traducida al español y editada para mayor claridad a partir de una versión en inglés que aparece en la página de The Nevada Independent.

Un día después de que un hombre armado irrumpiera en un bar de música country y abriera fuego, matando a una docena de personas en Thousand Oaks, California, una orden ejecutiva ya familiar provino de la oficina del Gobernador de Nevada Brian Sandoval.

Era hora de bajar de nuevo las banderas de los Estados Unidos y del estado luego de otra tragedia. El gobernador, como lo había hecho antes, recurrió a Twitter para hacer que el anuncio fuera más conocido.

«He ordenado izar las banderas a media asta hasta la puesta del sol el 10 de noviembre como una señal de respeto y en recuerdo de las víctimas en Thousand Oaks, California», escribió a principios de este mes. «En nombre de todos los nevadenses, Lauralyn y yo enviamos nuestras más sinceras condolencias a los afectados».

Y así descendieron las estrellas y las barras, inclinadas como si estuvieran arrugadas por el duelo. Las banderas a media asta señalan a una nación o estado en luto y, en años recientes, eso no ha escaseado. Las Vegas. Orlando Santa Fe. Sutherland Springs. Parkland. Pittsburgh. Y, ahora, Thousand Oaks. Todo retumbado por tiroteos masivos. Todos en varias etapas de recuperación.

Luego de las secuelas de cada tiroteo sin sentido, las banderas a media asta se izan como un símbolo de tristeza. Pero las banderas se bajan para otros momentos de luto, incluyendo la muerte de prominentes figuras estatales o nacionales y en los días reservados para la conmemoración. Combine todos los eventos que podrían desencadenar tal declaración, y no es raro ver a la bandera estadounidense ondeando en el viento más debajo de la asta.

Un análisis por parte de The Nevada Independent de las órdenes ejecutivas durante el segundo mandato de Sandoval encontró que en un 8 por ciento del 2015 las banderas ondearon a media asta, un 18 por ciento en el 2016 y un 7 por ciento en el 2017. En lo que va del año, las banderas han estado a media asta 11 por ciento del tiempo.

Las órdenes ejecutivas se leen como una cronología solemne, conmemorando un evento trágico tras otro. Por ejemplo, junio y julio de 2016. El tiroteo ocurrido en el club nocturno Pulse en Orlando puso las banderas a media asta el 15 y 16 de junio. Varias semanas después, Old Glory [bandera estadounidense] volvió a izarse hacia abajo, esta vez en señal de luto por cinco policías emboscados y asesinados en Dallas. Posteriormente, un terrorista atropelló a una multitud el Día de la Bastilla en Niza, Francia, matando a 86 personas. Las banderas de los Estados Unidos ondearon a media asta por cinco días a mediados de julio. De vuelta en suelo estadounidense, una cuarta tragedia, el asesinato de tres policías en Baton Rouge, Louisiana, mantuvo las banderas a media asta hasta el 22 de julio de ese año.

A finales de 2016, las banderas estuvieron a media asta por 64 días, o aproximadamente el equivalente a dos meses.

Probablemente Nevada se lamentó más el año siguiente, cuando un hombre armado disparó hacia el festival de música Route 91 Harvest, matando a 58 personas en Las Vegas. Horas después, Sandoval había ordenado banderas a media asta y permanecieron así hasta el atardecer del 6 de octubre de 2017. Las banderas se bajaron nuevamente el 1 de octubre de este año para recordar a las víctimas en el primer aniversario del tiroteo en Las Vegas.

El senador estadounidense John McCain, la ex primera dama Barbara Bush, el astronauta John Glenn, el juez de la Corte Suprema Antonin Scalia y el reverendo Billy Graham se encuentran entre los dignatarios cuyas muertes llevaron a las banderas estadounidenses a izarse más abajo de su nivel en años recientes.

Y para todos los momentos que no podeos predecir en los que se iza la bandera a media asta — en espera de que nunca ocurran — hay otros que suceden cada año con la precisión de un reloj.

Este año habrá al menos un día más de banderas a media asta en Nevada: El 7 de diciembre, Día de la Conmemoración del ataque a Pearl Harbor.

 

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¿Por qué se iza la bandera a media asta en México?

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¿Qué ocurre en el país?

Recibe la información más relevante del gobierno y la sociedad.

México

En actos solemnes es común observar al lábaro patrio lucir a media asta, pero hay diversas razones

lun 19 septiembre 2022 05:03 PM

La bandera monumental del Zócalo ondea a media asta, en memoria de las víctimas de los sismos del 19 de septiembre de 1985 y 2017.
(Foto: Moisés Pablo / Cuartoscuro )

Dolores Luna

@lunamayad

La bandera de México es uno de los símbolos más representativos y con los cuales la mayoría de los habitantes se identifica. Además de que los connacionales la arropan sobre todo en fiestas nacionales cuando están lejos del territorio nacional.

Por ello, también se le muestra respeto como una muestra solemne por parte de las autoridades que la colocan a media asta en diversas situaciones, sobre todo cuando se han vivido catástrofes.

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Después de que con la separación Iglesia-Estados que se consolidó con el gobierno del presidente Benito Juárez también se cambió el significado de sus colores, como consecuencia de la separación del estado con la iglesia:
*Verde-esperanza
*Blanco-Unidad
*Rojo-la sangre de los héroes nacionales.

El 24 de febrero de 1984 entró en vigencia la nueva Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales, en la que se establece:

Artículo 11. — En los inmuebles de las Autoridades que por sus características lo permitan, se deberán rendir honores a la Bandera Nacional con carácter obligatorio los días 24 de febrero, 15 y 16 de septiembre y 20 de noviembre de cada año.

Te recomendamos:

¿Por qué se pone la bandera a media asta?

Cuando se conmemora la muerte de personajes importantes para la historia nacional. También se hace cuando el país entero está de luto debido a alguna tragedia o infortunio importante.

Este 19 de septiembre, el presidente de México, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, encabezó la ceremonia para recordar a las víctimas fatales de los sismos de 1985 y del 2017, que cumplen 37 y cinco años respectivamente.

 

Fechas en las que se iza a media asta

  • 14 de febrero / aniversario luctuoso de Vicente Guerrero
  • 22 de febrero / aniversario luctuoso de Francisco I. Madero
  • 28 de febrero / aniversario luctuoso de Cuauhtémoc
  • 18 de julio / aniversario luctuoso de Benito Juárez
  • 30 de julio / aniversario luctuoso de Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

 

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The sentence was carried out: how Stepan Bandera was executed | Articles

On October 15, 1959, a dead man with a skull injury was delivered to a Munich hospital. According to the documents — Stefan Popel, a citizen of Germany. Doctors’ suspicions were aroused by a gun found at the deceased. The investigation quickly established that Stefan (Stepan) Bandera was hiding under the name of Popel, and death was most likely the result of potassium cyanide poisoning. «Izvestia» recalled how the liquidation of one of the most active accomplices of the Nazis, proclaimed a national hero in modern Ukraine, was organized.

Against the Poles and Bolsheviks

It all started January 1, 1909 in the quiet Austro-Hungarian city of Lemberg, now known as Lvov. On this frosty day, the future terrorist was born in the family of a Uniate priest. The problems of national minorities became more acute after the First World War, when the Lviv region became part of Poland. In 1922 Stepan joined the Union of Ukrainian Nationalist Youth, and in 1929 — the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), with which his whole life will be connected . He moved into the front ranks of the OUN thanks primarily to his propaganda skills. But he did not disdain military actions either. So, in 1934, Bandera became one of the organizers of the murder of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Poland, Bronislaw Peratsky.

He was arrested and sentenced to «the highest measure», but the execution was commuted to life imprisonment. Probably, later the Poles had time to regret this decision… While Bandera was in Polish prisons, he became a legend among the Galician Ukrainian nationalists. Shortly after the Germans at 19In 1939 Poland was crushed, Bandera was free, in a halo of heroic glory.

Photo: TASS/Vladimir Sindeev A. Sheptytsky (in the center in the foreground)

From his youth, he considered both the Poles and the Bolsheviks to be his enemies, although he knew about the latter only by hearsay… … This front was directed against the diplomatic representatives of the USSR in Western Ukraine, against the Bolshevik agents, the Communist Party and Sovietophilism. The purpose of these actions was to demonstrate the unity of the liberation front, the solidarity of Western Ukraine with the anti-Bolshevik struggle of the Center and the East, and to undermine communist and agent-Sovietophile work among the Ukrainian population in Western Ukraine.

It is not surprising that «a fighter for Ukrainian happiness» rejoiced when Germany invaded the territory of the Soviet Union and a war broke out in which the Wehrmacht hoped for a quick success. The Germans rushed to Moscow, sweeping away everything in their path, and Bandera could finally prove himself on two fronts at once — both against the Poles and against the «Sovietophiles». The OUN battalion «Nachtigal» entered Lvov along with units of the Wehrmacht and began punitive operations. Bandera regularly participated in the murders of Poles and Jews. Those who were suspected of collaborating with the Soviet authorities were arbitrarily destroyed. Their activities were beneficial to the occupiers, and the leaders of the OUN * believed that such actions rally. But as far as independence was concerned, the Germans kept Bandera on a short leash.

Photo: TASS/Vladimir Sindeev

Bandera

Bandera himself did not inspire full confidence in the German authorities as a too restless and nervous client. For almost two years, the Germans marinated it in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp — however, in tolerable conditions. Bandera was taken care of as a potential agent: they understood that he could be useful. It would be naive to think that he was pulling the strings from the camp, controlling his OUN lads. But they, as a rule, were called Bandera, because it was he who remained the symbol of the struggle for independence. And the militants, who acted absolutely independently of the «head thief», supported this legend. Such popularity indirectly increased Bandera’s reputation in the eyes of the Germans. While he was sitting in the bowels of the OUN, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, the UPA, was formed, which formally did not approve of the German occupation of Ukraine, but fought against Soviet partisans and Polish anti-fascists. On account of the UPA, such bloody actions as the Volyn massacre of 1943, when the punishers brutally killed more than 30 thousand Poles, most of whom were old people, women and children.

Sentenced

Millions of Ukrainians fought under the red banners, beat the Nazis and Bandera, died heroically. It was clear that they were powerful. It was then that Bandera was released into the wild. He began to train sabotage groups, and soon formally headed both the UPA and the OUN, although he failed to securely take control of these organizations. He did not have the qualities of a leader and, in essence, was unable to unite the different versions of Ukrainian nationalism. Each grouping had its chieftain, and even hetman.

In 1944 Hitler’s cause was doomed; by and large, the Ukrainian Nazis could not but understand this. But the «rebels» were also aware of something else: without the German military machine, they would die. They could only dream of mass support among the people — and therefore, in desperation, they continued to serve the occupiers. In the last months of the war, this criminal cooperation only intensified. OUN members have made every effort to complicate the liberation of Ukraine. The fight against the partisans, demonstratively brutal reprisals against the peasants — while Bandera himself was somewhere on the sidelines, at a safe distance from the bloody events. He was an ideologue, not a fighter.

Photo: TASS/Vladimir Sindeev

S. Bandera’s identity card in the name of Stefan Popel

Until now, the fact that the Abwehr was not recognized as a criminal organization at the Nuremberg trials is still considered a «protection certificate» for the OUN and UPA. This is, of course, a weak excuse. The military intelligence of the Third Reich was a tool of the NSDAP. It is impossible to separate the Abwehr from the Hitlerite political system and the military machine.

After the collapse of Nazi Germany, the OUN underground quickly found new patrons. Bandera understood that he had no mercy in the Soviet Union. There was a choice left — to enter the service of those who were afraid of Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe, or to die in a fight on the ruins of the Third Reich. He preferred the first.

Photo: commons.wikimedia.org

Bogdan Stashinsky

In the spring of 1945, a candidate for dictatorship of Ukraine prudently ended up in Germany, in the American zone of occupation. The former allies of the USSR in the anti-Hitler coalition were not embarrassed that he collaborated with the secret services of the Reich . In the context of the beginning of the Cold War, the West decided to use Bandera for their own purposes.

Under the wing of the British secret services in 1946, he created the «OUN Cordless Wire» with branches in several European countries and the USA. The trail of blood stretched to the Soviet Union… The state security agencies acted ingeniously against the Ukrainian underground. There were enough infiltrated agents among the rebels, and information about Bandera’s activities came to Dzerzhinsky Square without delay. There was no consensus in the leadership of Soviet intelligence about the need to eliminate Bandera. In the environment of the Munich Ukrainian, double agents prevailed — and the MGB believed that it was more convenient to fight the anti-Soviet underground in Ukraine, manipulating the impulses of an ambitious «leader».

Photo: topwar.ru

Reconstruction of the pistol from which Stepan Bandera was killed

The party leadership insisted on liquidation, and above all Nikita Khrushchev, who had personal scores with Bandera since the front. Indeed, the fatal attack on General Nikolai Vatutin was associated with the activities of Bandera and his accomplices.February 1944, when saboteurs from the UPA managed to mortally wound the commander of the 1st Ukrainian Front.

In 1949, the Supreme Court of the USSR sentenced Bandera in absentia to capital punishment — the death penalty. And , about a year later, Soviet counterintelligence officers managed to recruit a nineteen-year-old student of the Lviv Pedagogical Institute, Bohdan Stashinsky, who was connected through relatives with the OUN underground in Ukraine. Soon he successfully completed the first task, and then, after an intensive course of study at the intelligence school, he successfully liquidated at 1957 in Munich, one of the leaders of the OUN abroad, the editor-in-chief of the magazine «Ukrainian Independent» Lev Rebet.

Photo: TASS/Vladimir Sindeev

The Stepan Bandera costume he wore on the day of the murder

In 1959, Stashinsky again arrived in Munich, with documents in the name of Hans Budayt. He quickly managed to establish the place of residence of Bandera. As in the liquidation of Rebet, it was planned to use special weapons — a portable pistol loaded with ampoules of potassium cyanide. After the shot, the air was filled with poisonous fumes. The heart stops within 5-10 minutes — and there are no signs of violent death. The shooter himself could have been poisoned by his own aerosol, but in this case he was given a reliable antidote. Already in May, agent Oleg (that was Stashinsky’s pseudonym) tried to enforce the sentence, but it turned out to be a risky undertaking: the OUN leader was reliably guarded. The special pistol even had to be thrown away.

After that, for several months, scouts meticulously followed the leader of the OUN, studied his habits… On October 15, Bandera almost for the first time showed carelessness: after a shopping trip, he put his personal Opel in the garage, let go of the guards and, alone, followed to the entrance of his house at 7 Kroitmeierstrasse. There, near the elevator, Stashinsky was waiting for him. He covered his new pistol with a newspaper. Soon there was a soft bang in the hall, Stashinsky took aim at the face — and Bandera inhaled a lethal dose of potassium cyanide. The liquidator calmly, without looking back and without arousing suspicion, left the house.

Construction of the myth

We have outlined the most probable, official version of this detective, voiced by Stashinsky himself, who fled to the FRG in 1961. He repented of his deed, served six of the eight years appointed by the sentence in a German prison and . .. disappeared. According to some reports, Stashinsky underwent plastic surgery, new documents were issued, and he lives out the rest of his years somewhere in the United States. And that makes the story rather suspicious. The assassins could have been ordered by the Americans, the Germans, and Bandera’s OUN comrades-in-arms. Too many had scores for him . A string of conjectures and conspiracy fantasies confirms the main thing: by the end of his life, Bandera was completely confused as a person and went bankrupt as a politician.

The propaganda image of Bandera, of course, is incomparable with his real contribution to history. And the mysterious death has become an important component of the myth. H in modern Ukraine, Bandera is not just heroized, he is intensively and obsessively turned into a national shrine. The construction of the myth rests on defaults and fantasies. This does not take into account the main thing: Bandera did not know the real Ukraine, did not represent its interests, and therefore was doomed to collapse. This is obvious even if we do not recall the terrorist «exploits» of the OUN leader in Polish times and his participation in Nazi atrocities during the Great Patriotic War.

Photo: TASS/Vladimir Sindeev

A copy of the death mask taken from the face of the murdered Stepan Bandera in Munich

In essence, he understood only his native Lvov region, which had never been part of the Russian Empire… Slobozhanshchina, the Left Bank and Novorossiya — the regions where the lion’s share of Ukrainians lived and still live — remained a dark forest for him. About the life of the overwhelming majority of compatriots, Bandera had approximate, book ideas. He fiercely fought against the Austrian, German, Polish, and, above all, Soviet and Russian influence on the Ukrainian population, tried to stir up national self-consciousness in Lviv Ukrainians. At the same time, he, most likely, had never been in Kyiv or Poltava in his life and remained a “Ukrainian-correspondence student”, living now in Krakow, now in Munich.

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