Bandera puerto rico original: Historia de la bandera de Puerto Rico y sus variaciones

Bandera de Puerto Rico — Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

La bandera de Puerto Rico es de forma rectangular consiste de cinco franjas horizontales, tres rojas y dos blancas. Por el lado del asta, tiene un triángulo equilátero azul con una estrella blanca solitaria en el centro.

La bandera se diseñó durante la última década del siglo XIX como insignia de los separatistas puertorriqueños que residían en Nueva York. La identidad del autor del diseño ha sido motivo de un acalorado debate, mencionándose entre sus posibles autores a los nacionalistas puertorriqueños Juan de Mata Terreforte, Antonio Vélez Alvarado, Manuel Besosa y el poeta guerrillero Francisco Gonzalo (Pachín) Marín. Sin embargo, una carta del 20 de mayo de 1923, escrita por Terreforte establece que fue Pachín Marín quien le propuso a Terreforte en una carta desde Jamaica, el diseño de la bandera y que este último transmitió esa proposición en «Chimney Hall«, donde se adoptó.[1]

La bandera simboliza la «hermandad» en la lucha revolucionaria entre el grupo separatista cubano y el puertorriqueño, debido al hecho de que, el grupo de separatistas puertorriqueños que adoptaron el diseño de la bandera como emblema de su grupo, la Sección de Puerto Rico, estaba asociada a los separatistas cubanos que luchaban con idénticos ideales bajo el Partido Revolucionario Cubano. [2]​ Esta bandera fue izada por primera vez durante la Intentona de Yauco en el año 1897, unos meses antes de que la Provincia de Puerto Rico se convirtiese en una provincia autónoma del Reino de España.[cita requerida]

Durante el dominio español así como en los comienzos del dominio estadounidense, se consideró un delito izar la bandera de los separatistas. No fue hasta el año 1952 cuando el Partido Nacionalista, el mismo grupo independentista, la acogió como su emblema en las elecciones de 1932. Blanca Canales proclamó la «República de Puerto Rico» durante el Grito de Jayuya en 1950 utilizando esta bandera separatista y Lolita Lebrón la desplegó durante el ataque al Congreso en 1954. En los años 1916, 1922, 1927 y 1932 las cámaras legislativas trataron de oficializar la bandera sin éxito.

La bandera separatista fue adoptada oficialmente por el Estado Libre Asociado en 1952.

Índice

  • 1 Colores de la bandera
    • 1. 1 Variante de la bandera separatista en blanco y negro
  • 2 Significado
  • 3 Las banderas de identidad nacional históricas y del grupo separatista
  • 4 Banderas de los municipios
  • 5 Véase también
  • 6 Referencias
    • 6.1 Bibliografía

Colores de la bandera[editar]

Las únicas referencias legales sobre los colores de la bandera se encuentran en la Ley del 24 de julio de 1952 y en el Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico:

Sección 1. La bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico será la que tradicionalmente se ha conocido hasta ahora como la bandera puertorriqueña y que es rectangular, de cinco franjas horizontales alternadas, tres rojas y dos blancas y junto al asta un triángulo equilátero azul marino con una estrella blanca de cinco puntas. Este triángulo, por el lado vertical, abarca toda la anchura de la bandera.

Ley del 24 de julio de 1952[3]

Artículo 3. B. La bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico es la que tradicionalmente se ha conocido hasta ahora como la bandera puertorriqueña. Su forma es rectangular, con franjas horizontales, alternadas, tres rojas y dos blancas, y tiene junto al asta un triángulo equilátero azul con una estrella blanca de cinco puntas. Este triángulo, por el lado vertical, abarca toda la anchura de la bandera.

Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico[4]

Ambos documentos describen de una manera muy similar la bandera, pero, al no redactarse unas especificaciones técnicas, existe cierta confusión a la hora de elegir los tonos para los colores, especialmente en el caso del azul.

Desde que se aprobó en 1952, el triángulo era confeccionado con un azul oscuro muy semejante al de la bandera de los Estados Unidos. Pero desde 1995, se han venido usando tonos de azul más claros. Este cambio, por no estar estipulado en ley alguna, sigue sin resolver las posibles dudas sobre los colores. [5]​ Así, por ejemplo, el azul de la bandera izada en los Juegos Olímpicos de Pekín 2008 era oscuro.[6]

Variante de la bandera separatista en blanco y negro[editar]

Bandera separatista de Puerto Rico en blanco y negro

La curiosa combinación de colores para la bandera surgió de una alteración de la puerta de la bandera ubicada en la calle San José, en el viejo San Juan.

Tradicionalmente, la puerta estaba pintada en franjas verticales rojas y blancas con un triángulo azul en la parte superior con una estrella blanca, similar a la bandera del estado, sin embargo, el 5 de julio del 2016 el famoso sitio turístico sufrió un cambio en los colores realizado por el grupo Artistas Solidarixs y en Resistencia.

De acuerdo con una carta abierta de los artistas que realizaron la modificación, el cambio de color simboliza que la bandera esta de luto debido a la Ley de Supervisión, Administración y Estabilidad Económica de Puerto Rico (o ley PROMESA por sus siglas en inglés) que impone una junta de control fiscal y por lo tanto, limita la autonomía política de isla además de restringir fuertemente el presupuesto en los sectores de salud, pensiones y educación.

La versión monocromática de la bandera se ha utilizado en múltiples actos de protesta (como las protestas de 2019) y en espacios de arte urbano donde se ha extendido el cambio de colores incluso a versiones históricas de la bandera como la del Grito de Lares.[7]

Significado[editar]

Las franjas rojas representan la sangre derramada por los patriotas de la revolución, blancas significan la victoria y la paz venidera, el triángulo azul equilátero es símbolo del mar y del cielo de Puerto Rico y la estrella solitaria representa la isla.

Según fuentes oficiales, la estrella es «símbolo del Estado Libre Asociado y reposa sobre un triángulo azul que en sus tres ángulos evoca la integridad de la forma republicana de gobierno representada por tres poderes: el legislativo, el ejecutivo y el judicial». Las tres franjas rojas «simbolizan la sangre vital que nutre a esos tres poderes de Gobierno local», los cuales desempeñan funciones independientes y separadas. La libertad del individuo y los derechos del hombre mantienen en equilibrio a los poderes y su misión esencial la representan «dos franjas blancas».

Las banderas de identidad nacional históricas y del grupo separatista[editar]

La bandera del Grito de Lares fue diseñada por Ramón Emeterio Betances. La bandera es similar a la bandera de la República Dominicana, ya que la Gesta Restauradora, que en 1865 terminó definitivamente con el dominio colonial español en Santo Domingo, fue uno de los motivadores de los patriotas borinqueños. La bandera bordada por Mariana Bracetti, conocida como «Brazo de Oro» fue desplegada en el altar mayor de la iglesia como señal que la revolución había comenzado. La bandera fue adoptada en 1952 como el símbolo oficial del municipio de Lares. La bandera original se conserva en el Museo de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Banderas de la historia de Puerto Rico
Bandera de la corona de Castilla, del descubrimiento
(1492)
Cruz de Borgoña, bandera militar española
(1512-1843)
Bandera de las plazas marítimas, castillos y defensas de las costas de los territorios españoles
(1701-1771, 1793)
Bandera de España
(1843-1873 y 1875-1898)
Bandera Revolucionaria de Lares
(1868)
Una bandera original de Lares, conservada en el Museo de Historia, Antropología y Arte, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras. Bandera de España durante la Primera República
(1873-1875)
Bandera de la provincia de Puerto Rico
(1873-1898)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos, única oficial en Puerto Rico
(1898-1908)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos, única oficial en Puerto Rico
(1908-1912)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos, única oficial en Puerto Rico
(1912-1952)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos utilizada junto con la de Puerto Rico
(1952-1959)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos utilizada junto con la de Puerto Rico
(1959)
Bandera de los Estados Unidos actualmente utilizada junto con la de Puerto Rico
(1960-actualidad)

Banderas de los municipios[editar]

Banderas de los municipios de Puerto Rico
Adjuntas Aguada Aguadilla Aguas Buenas Aibonito Añasco Arecibo Arroyo Barceloneta Barranquitas
Bayamón Cabo Rojo Caguas Camuy Canóvanas Carolina Cataño Cayey Ceiba Ciales
Cidra Coamo Comerio Corozal Culebra Dorado Fajardo Florida Guánica Guayama
Guayanilla Guaynabo Gurabo Hatillo Hormigueros Humacao Isabela Jayuya Juana Díaz Juncos
Lajas Lares Las Marías Las Piedras Loíza Luquillo Manatí Maricao Maunabo Mayagüez
Moca Morovis Naguabo Naranjito Orocovis Patillas Peñuelas Ponce Quebradillas Rincón
Río Grande Sabana Grande Salinas San Germán San Juan San Lorenzo San Sebastián Santa Isabel Toa Alta Toa Baja
Trujillo Alto Utuado Vega Alta Vega Baja Vieques Villalba Yabucoa Yauco

Véase también[editar]

  • Bandera de Cuba
  • Carta Autonómica de Puerto Rico (1897)

Referencias[editar]

  1. ↑ Patria Figueroa de Cifredo, Pachín Marín: Héroe y poeta (Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, PR: 1967), pág. 73
  2. ↑ [1] Gobierno de Puerto Rico]
  3. ↑ Ley del 24 de julio de 1952
  4. ↑ Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico
  5. Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Consultado el 25.02.2009
  6. ↑ «La delegación olímpica de Puerto Rico iza su bandera en la Villa Olímpica». Archivado desde el original el 9 de octubre de 2008. Consultado el 17 de febrero de 2009. 
  7. ↑ Bandera de Puerto Rico está negra y ‘de luto’ por junta de control impuesta por Estados Unidos

Bibliografía[editar]

  • Ley 1 del 24 de julio de 1952.
  • Discurso del Gobernador Luis Muñoz Marín. Fundación del Estado Libre Asociado. 25 de julio de 1952.
  • Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.Reglamento Núm. 5282 del 3 de agosto de 1995.
Control de autoridades
  • Proyectos Wikimedia
  • Datos: Q15994084
  • Multimedia: Flags of Puerto Rico / Q15994084

  • Diccionarios y enciclopedias
  • Britannica: url

Historia de la bandera de Puerto Rico y sus variaciones

Desde su origen en 1895, el significado y los colores de la bandera de Puerto Rico han cambiado según el contexto histórico.

La transición del símbolo patriótico ha consistido tanto en variaciones de su tonalidad azul, como una versión en blanco y negro. Incluso, se ha usado con distintas apariencias para enviar mensajes ideológicos o revolucionarios.

Bandera del Grito de Lares

La bandera de Lares fue diseñada por Ramón Emeterio Betánces y bordada, originalmente, por Mariana Bracetti para representar a Puerto Rico. Se izó por primera vez durante el Grito de Lares de 1868.

PUBLICIDAD

Foto: Ángeles Rodríguez

La confección de la bandera de Puerto Rico, 27 años después, se inspiró en parte por el diseño de la lareña.

Origen de la bandera puertorriqueña

PUBLICIDAD

En 1890, un grupo de puertorriqueños exiliados a Nueva York se unió al Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico del Partido Revolucionario Cubano para luchar por la independencia de ambas islas.

Entre los puertorriqueños estaban Manuel Besosa, Aurelio Méndez Martínez, Sotero Figueroa, Juan de Matta Terreforte, José Julio Henna y Roberto H. Todd.

El diseño de la bandera de Puerto Rico fue presentado al comité en el 1892, como una versión de la bandera cubana con los colores invertidos. Hasta ese entonces, la bandera que utilizaba el grupo de puertorriqueños era la de Lares.

El Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico adoptó el nuevo diseño durante una reunión el 22 de diciembre de 1895, en el Chimney Hall de Nueva York.

Es tema de debate si el creador de la monoestrellada fue Juan de Matta Terreforte, Antonio Vélez Alvarado, Manuel Besosa o Francisco Gonzalo “Pachín” Marín.

Sin embargo, una carta escrita por Terreforte el 20 de mayo de 1923 revela que Pachín Marín le propuso el diseño a Terreforte por medio de una carta desde Jamaica.

Uso en las revoluciones puertorriqueñas

Luego de su adopción por parte del grupo independentista, la bandera fue usada en diversas revoluciones en la isla.

La primera vez que se usó la bandera de Puerto Rico fue en la Intentona de Yauco el 24 de marzo de 1897.

PUBLICIDAD

Posteriormente, en 1932, el Partido Nacionalista la usó como su emblema en las elecciones.

Blanca Canales llevó la bandera al declarar la República de Puerto Rico en el Grito de Jayuya en 1950.

Asimismo, Lolita Lebrón la izó durante el ataque al Congreso de Estados Unidos en 1954.

Luego, en junio de 1948, se aprobó la Ley 53, conocida como la Ley de Mordaza, que prohibía la portación y exhibición de la bandera de Puerto Rico. No obstante, la legislación fue derogada en 1956, la Ley 53 se usó para perseguir a nacionalistas e independentistas.

La Legislatura de Puerto Rico intentó oficializar la bandera en los años 1916, 1922, 1927 y 1937.

El 24 de julio de 1952, se adoptó la monoestrellada junto al Estado Libre Asociado.

Significados de la bandera

El comité de independentistas en Nueva York adoptaron la bandera con los siguientes significados:

  • Las franjas rojas representan la sangre derramada por los patriotas en la revolución;

  • Las franjas blancas, la victoria y la paz luego de obtener la independencia;

  • El triángulo azul equilátero, el mar y el cielo azul de Puerto Rico; y

  • La estrella solitaria representa la isla.

Por otra parte, la Legislatura de Puerto Rico estableció, en 1952, los siguientes significados:

  • Tres franjas rojas simbolizan la sangre vital que nutre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial;

  • Dos franjas blancas representan la libertad y los derechos del individuo que mantienen en equilibrio los tres poderes del gobierno;

  • El triángulo equilátero representa las ramas legislativa, ejecutiva y judicial; y

  • La estrella blanca solitaria representa el Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.

Además, las tres puntas del triángulo en la bandera de Cuba representan los tres ideales de la Revolución Francesa de libertad, igualdad y fraternidad. Por consiguiente, el mismo significado aplica a la bandera puertorriqueña.

Los azules de la bandera

El azul celeste es el tono que tenía la bandera original, que era el mismo azul de la bandera de Lares.

A pesar de que se relaciona con los movimientos independentistas, el azul celeste es el verdadero azul de la bandera puertorriqueña.

 

Por otro lado, es común que se use la bandera con el azul marino o con el mismo tono de azul de la bandera estadounidense, debido a que simboliza que Puerto Rico sea parte de los Estados Unidos. Además, hay uniformidad al izar la monoestrellada junto a la bandera estadounidense.

Incluso, otra de las tonalidades más usadas es el azul turquí, debido a que es parejo al azul de la bandera oficial de Cuba.

Sin embargo, cuando se creó la bandera cubana, su azul era celeste, como el de la bandera de Lares y Puerto Rico.  El color turquí fue usado en Cuba a partir del 1906.

Otras versiones

De manera similar, el l 4 de julio de 2016, la puerta de la bandera de Puerto Rico en San Juan fue pintada de negro y blanco por miembros del colectivo Artistas Solidarixs en Resistencia como protesta a la Junta de Supervisión Fiscal. Por esto, el uso de la bandera en blanco y negro se ha perpetuado como símbolo de revolución.

 

Foto: David Villafañe Ramos para El Nuevo Día

“Reemplazar con color negro (que es la ausencia de luz) crea nuevas lecturas. La nuestra es una propuesta de resistencia, no es pesimista, al contrario, habla sobre la muerte de estos poderes tal cual los conocemos, pero la esperanza sigue ahí representada en las franjas blancas que simbolizan la libertad del individuo y su capacidad para reclamar y hacer valer sus derechos”, explicó el colectivo en una carta.

La bandera negra y blanca fue usada, desde entonces, en señal de protesta al gobierno. Incluso, la monoestrellada negra estuvo presente en las protestas del verano de 2019 contra la administración del exgobernador Ricardo Rosselló Nevares.

 

Foto: The Pride LA

Incluso, la comunidad LGBTTQ+ fusionó la bandera puertorriqueña con la bandera representativa de su diversidad.

Las distintas versiones de la bandera sirven para representar ideales particulares y demuestran la importancia simbólica e histórica de la bandera en la cultura puertorriqueña.

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    Turchynov’s hat is on fire / Current moment

    Judging by the statements of the NSDC secretary, the Ukrainian authorities are preparing another loud provocation

    Valery Panov

    14. 08.2015

    Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Oleksandr Turchynov made yet another cynical statement about Russia. The Russian special services, he claimed the other day, are preparing major terrorist acts in the “occupied territories” (DPR / LPR. — V.P. ) for which they “select objects of mass congestion of people: kindergartens, educational institutions, residential buildings, objects infrastructure — they are working out scenarios … «They say that the Russian leadership sets the task of bringing the number of victims among the civilian population as a result of terrorist attacks «to a number comparable to the number of deaths as a result of the tragedy of flight MH17.»

    And according to the plan of the Russian special services, says Turchynov, “the bloody terrorist attacks should divert the attention of the world community from Russia’s responsibility for the downed Boeing, legitimize and justify the intensification of Russian aggression, and also deprive Ukraine of support in the world and lead to its international isolation.

    Turchynov emphasized that the provocations are planned by Moscow in order to accuse the leadership of Ukraine of crimes against humanity «and to initiate at the international level the issue of holding the Ukrainian authorities accountable.» The key expression in all this provocative chatter is “a downed Boeing”, and the whole meaning of the meaningful comment, as the Ukrainian media wrote, can be expressed by the well-known Russian proverb: “On a thief, even a hat is on fire.” Turchynov made his statement after the UN Security Council did not accept the proposal of Ukraine and several other, let’s say, interested states to organize a trial of Russia at the UN site, that is, an international tribunal to investigate the causes of the Malaysian Boeing crash over Ukrainian territory on July 17 last year.

    It became obvious that one way or another, but the Ukrainian authorities could be held accountable, if only for not closing the air corridor and the plane was over the combat zone.

    The junta panicked to such an extent that, through the mouths of its trusted representatives, it began to speak utter nonsense.

    Deputy Commander of the Corps of the Ministry of Defense of the Donetsk People’s Republic Eduard Basurin even said that one should not take seriously the statements of the Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Oleksandr Turchynov, who in his post «has completely lost his mind.» (Hitler, by the way, was also called possessed…) And he remarked: “Mr. Turchinov, wake up! Both you personally and your accomplices in Kyiv have already committed so many war crimes in the Donbass that even without any tribunal, responsibility for the deaths of innocent people will have to be borne not only by you, but also by your descendants. If any of them stay in Ukraine when your entire regime collapses.”

    Let’s hope that the current pro-American regime will collapse in the very near future, but A. Turchinov’s statement must be taken with the utmost seriousness. It was this gentleman, being the head of the Verkhovna Rada, contrary to the Constitution, appointed himself to a position not provided for by any legislative acts — acting. President of Ukraine. Having thus usurped the highest power in the country, he also took the post of commander-in-chief of the country’s armed forces (02/26/2014) without authorization, which allowed him to send regular troops to the peaceful regions that did not submit to the junta — Donetsk and Lugansk. According to his decree of April 14, 2014, the so-called. ATO.

    At the same time, Turchinov hypocritically declared: “The Russian Federation is sending special units to the east of the country, which seize administrative premises with weapons and endanger the lives of hundreds of thousands of citizens by their actions.” According to this version, explicitly formulated in the overseas «regional committee», the ATO was a forced measure against Russian aggression. Evidence of this, so to speak, aggression for a year and a half has been stubbornly sought by all intelligence agencies of the NATO countries, but for some reason they still cannot find it.

    Thus, the punitive operation against the citizens of the east of their country was practically the biggest provocation of Ukraine against Russia in all the years of “independence”.

    In Ukrainian-Russian relations over the past two and a half decades, permanent provocations have generally become the norm for Ukraine. These are, first of all, “gas wars” (Ukraine wants to receive Russian gas for free), trade “wars” (for preferences exclusively for Ukrainian goods), cultural and ideological “wars”, incl. bans on the Russian language that are painful for the Russian perception, the glorification of Bandera and other collaborators, etc. — do not list everything. Today it is quite obvious that after the last (next?) coup d’état in 2014, Ukraine voluntarily became a colony of the West. Thus, the “nezalezhnaya” has become the main tool of the anti-Russian policy of the USA, the EU and, of course, NATO. And Ukrainian politicians are puppets controlled by the USA.

    Provocations have become bloody, there is an endless series of them, but there are, so to speak, reference points in it. When the blitzkrieg did not work out for Nenka-Ukraine in the east of the country, acting. President A. Turchynov on April 30 last year gathered the heads of the regional state administration for a meeting and warned of the need to be especially vigilant on the May holidays. According to him, it was on these days that provocations were being prepared.

    In principle, he turned out to be right: on May 2, as we now know, in Odessa, nationalists burned 48 innocent people in the House of Trade Unions. Was Turchinov’s warning about impending provocations accidental?..

    This cannibalistic action, which can only be compared with the destruction by Bandera under the leadership of German punishers of the inhabitants of the Belarusian village of Khatyn (149 people were shot and burned) or by the SS men of the inhabitants of the French town of Oradour-sur-Glane (197 men were brutally killed and burned, 240 women and 205 children burned alive in the church) — clearly had a dual purpose. First: to intimidate the whole of Ukraine. (Our government should be terrible, said Stepan Bandera.) And second: to cause a wide resonance throughout the «civilized world» by the bloody terrorist attack of «Asian» Russia.

    In other words, try to repeat something similar to the American provocation in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2, 1964, which caused a storm of indignation among the American public. Then allegedly North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked American warships. After that, Congress with a light heart authorized the sending of American troops to South Vietnam and the beginning of the bombing of North Vietnam (up to 1,500 aircraft). But the boats, as it turned out later, were allied, South Vietnamese. And the Vietnam War lasted nine years.

    Or maybe it was planned to repeat something like the explosion of the battleship «Maine» on the roads of Havana on February 15, 1898, when 261 people drowned along with the ship? The death of the ship and people served as a concrete pretext for the start of the American-Spanish war, as a result of which the United States captured Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. After 13 years, it turned out that the ship had been blown up from the inside…

    Whatever it was, the ashes of the Odessans (citizens of Ukraine, mind you!), sacrificed to the American Moloch, will forever knock on our hearts. But the West did not pay much attention to the «Odessa Khatyn»: it was not its citizens who were burned. The provocation did not arouse international indignation at Russia’s actions, which the «dill» were counting on. A new hecatomb was required. And on July 17 last year, when the news agencies had only managed to spread the terrible news about the fall of the Boeing around the world, dozens and hundreds of commentators in the West began to accuse Russia and the militias of the tragedy in an angry chorus. Ukrainian media, citing the headquarters of the Antiterrorist Center, reported: “In the sky over the Donbass, terrorists shot down a Boeing passenger plane of international air traffic with the help of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system.”

    A similar hysteria in the Western media, and in the Ukrainian one too, had to be observed during the so-called. 5-Day War in the North Caucasus in 2008, when CNN regaled viewers with «pictures» of allegedly burning Georgian villages, weeping over dead relatives of people and other similar «news from the front.» A few years later it became known that these and other heartbreaking shots were filmed in advance in a specially built cinema hall, as far as I remember, in Qatar. In the case of the Boeing, both the reports and the grief of the people were, of course, not fake. However, the synchronization in the coverage of the events of those days in the West is still amazing.

    The impression is that the media were prepared for this terrible disaster. More precisely, that public opinion was ready, and, above all, in Ukraine.

    Starting from April 2014, the Ukrainian media regularly reported on helicopters and planes of the Armed Forces of Ukraine sold by militias. The press was full of such information. In the first month and a half of the punitive operation alone, the Ukrainian Air Force lost about a dozen helicopters, and several more were damaged. Losses amounted to almost half of the combat-ready machines. A similar situation has developed with ground attack and transport aviation. According to official figures as of August 22 last year, losses amounted to 12 aircraft and 12 helicopters, resulting in the death of 89and 11 soldiers were injured. Total material losses — at least 250 million dollars or 5,177,575,000 hryvnias (One Ukrainian media outlet calculated that this amount is equivalent to the annual salary of 181,160 teachers.)

    » shot down all aircraft either from anti-aircraft installations (heavy machine guns) or from man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS). There was no talk of any «Buks». All messages of this kind, I note, were replicated exclusively in the Ukrainian media. Except for one incident that occurred a month before the Boeing tragedy.

    At that time in Lugansk, while landing, the Ukrainian media reported, “terrorists shot down an Il-76 plane with paratroopers. There were about 30 people on board. The Ministry of Defense suspects that the shots were fired from Russian territory.” In the CNN news report, there were already 40 dead. Reuther spoke of 49 victims. The US media repeated this figure and wrote in the same way: «The plane was hit by fire from an anti-aircraft mount and a heavy machine gun,» and referred to the press service of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense.

    The militias continued to shoot down aircraft of the Armed Forces of Ukraine with formidable constancy even after the crash of the Malaysian Boeing. According to information from the annual report «Flightglobal Insight’s World Air Forces 2015», the number of active Ukrainian aviation in 2014 decreased from 400 to 222 pieces. According to experts, 3-5% are considered acceptable losses in aviation. If more aircraft are destroyed, then sorties are suspended and combat work begins to suppress enemy air defense systems.

    Question: why did the Ukrainian commanders-in-chief, first A. Turchynov, then P. Poroshenko, send people to certain death with such extraordinary ease? My only answer is this: they were gradually preparing world public opinion for a tragedy of an even greater scale.

    And Russia was appointed to blame here in advance.

    As far as the official investigation is being conducted by a group of international experts, they have classified everything they could. It was not by chance that the American political scientist Paul Craig Roberts wrote: if the West had irrefutable evidence against Russia, the results of the investigation would have been published a long time ago.

    Meanwhile, former US intelligence officials demanded from President Barack Obama that the authorities immediately release a US intelligence report on the crash of flight Mh27 in Ukraine, said on July 25 of this year. Sputnik News. Members of the Veterans of Intelligence for Sanity movement recalled that in late July last year they had already appealed to the US authorities to provide intelligence data on the crash of the Boeing 777, before what happened «turns into another bout of baseless accusations against Russia.» The letter notes that the tension in relations between the Russian Federation and the United States against the backdrop of the Ukrainian crisis is very quickly moving towards a dangerous line. Veterans do not exclude the possibility that the liner was shot down on purpose, on the orders of the Kyiv authorities or one of the oligarchs, in order to «accuse the anti-Kiev forces and Russia of mass murder.»

    Today the experts’ report on the Boeing tragedy is apparently being harmonized with the anti-Russian propaganda spread in the Western media, which is why they are hiding it from the general public. Meanwhile, just a couple of days after the disaster, the White House blamed Russia and President Vladimir Putin for what had happened. German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier immediately called for the rapid adoption of sanctions against the Russian economy. “We remain true to our course,” he said. «It’s about taking carefully considered pan-European measures to increase pressure and at the same time be ready for serious negotiations with Russia.» Steinmeier alone knows how to combine «pressure» and «readiness for negotiations» into one whole. And also to his colleagues in the EU and NATO, who saw in the tragedy another reason for an “official” blow to the Russian economy, that is, to the well-being of our people.

    This is despite the fact that Russia’s position is unequivocal: August 10 of this year. Moscow called on countries with data on the crash of a Malaysian Boeing in eastern Ukraine to make it public. “The countries that are part of this (international) investigation group “organized” themselves, began to work on the basis of bilateral agreements with Ukraine, and these agreements were not published. We have a vague idea of ​​what kind of agreements we are talking about and what these countries agreed to do among themselves in order to somehow shed light (on the tragedy),” said Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova.

    And already on August 12, foreign media reported that a surface-to-air missile (obviously a Buk) had spontaneously launched in the Poltava region of Ukraine. The fact «has taken place,» Lieutenant-General P. Melnikov, First Deputy Commander of the Air Defense Army, told the Ukrinform agency. Why all of a sudden such frankness? After all, no one pulls for the language.

    Are the Ukrainian authorities preparing public opinion in this way to announce that the Boeing was also shot down as a result of a spontaneous launch, the reason for which this time the general explained was “a short circuit as a result of damp cable networks”?

    Working out, so to speak, ways of retreat in case of exposure? And they had grounds for such fears.

    Thus, the «mouse fuss» started by the West around the terrible tragedy, and not only around it, was remarkably frankly commented on by Russia’s old enemy Zbigniew Brzezinski in an interview with Argyr Turner (Canada), which the author posted on the Web. “… in July 2014, a provocative crash of the Boeing 777 was organized, but it was done so clumsily that not only in the allied countries of the United States, but also in themselves, numerous reasonable doubts arose about Russia’s involvement in this tragic event. But it was the reason for the introduction of anti-Russian sanctions … At the same time, the United States in every possible way contributed to the intensification of hostilities in the South-East of Ukraine, starting to supply weapons there, including from European countries and Canada, as well as organizing the dispatch of military instructors and mercenaries, ”he said .

    Then, answering the question “Who benefits from the murder of Boris Nemtsov?” Zb. Brzezinski stressed: «My friends at the US National Security Agency sincerely believe that the death of Nemtsov will serve as a pretext for mass protests on March 1 in the Russian capital.»

    And then Brzezinski uttered a phrase that I want to highlight in particular:

    “According to them, specialists who carried out the task of shooting the Heavenly Hundred on the Maidan participated in the murder of Nemtsov, and the organizers were, among other things, members of the security service of Ukraine, which is currently a source of provocations to create pretexts for subsequent accusations against Russia.”

    By the way, Boris Nemtsov was killed on the night of February 27 this year, and on March 3 a petition appeared on the website of the White House calling: “Stop Putin’s violence! Immediate new strong sanctions against Russia! Recently, by the way, Austrian economists have calculated Europe’s losses from anti-Russian sanctions. According to data from the Austrian Institute for Economic Research (WIFO), writes the German «Die Welt», the economic crisis in Russia caused by sanctions will cost Europe 100 billion euros and more than 2 million jobs. It is noted that the crisis has led to much worse consequences for the countries of the European Union and Switzerland than expected. According to our specialists, Russia’s losses (in terms of money) are quite comparable to those in Europe. Moreover, the EU is 28 countries, and Russia is one.

    Meanwhile, there is an American trace in the murder of Nemtsov. It became known that the RPR co-chairman, PARNAS, had at least $10 million in Cypriot banks. Russian financial intelligence also found out that Nemtsov previously had accounts in the US and Germany.

    Obviously, he was able to earn this fortune as an adviser to Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. Then Boris Efimovich participated in the management of finances that came to Kyiv from the United States. At that time, he was allegedly involved in the illegal sale of weapons from the times of the USSR. And we are talking about artillery systems, armored vehicles, tanks, combat aircraft and even intercontinental ballistic missiles.

    True, today we can say that he has rendered a «disservice» to the current regime. The weapons were distributed to various «hot» spots, and the Ukrainian arsenals turned out to be empty. That’s why the junta is begging around the world. So, as they say, there is no evil without good. By the way, in all financial matters, the deceased had partners in Washington and Düsseldorf (Germany). And it is unlikely that any of them were interested in Boris Efimovich saying too much…

    However, these are just assumptions. Although an unnamed source of the Izvestiya newspaper in law enforcement agencies saw a «Ukrainian trace» in the murder of Boris Nemtsov.

    The source claims that the customer was the Ukrainian special services, and the organizers were the head of Dzhokhar Dudayev’s battalion Adam Osmaev and his wife Amina Okueva, who are fighting on the side of the Ukrainian security forces.

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