Longest zip line in the world: Here Are 6 of the World’s Fastest, Longest and Most Inspiring Zip Lines – Scout Life magazine
Here Are 6 of the World’s Fastest, Longest and Most Inspiring Zip Lines – Scout Life magazine
Soar like Superman, zoom over oceans and rainforests, or zip by a volcano and more on some of the world’s coolest zip lines! Here are six of them.
THE LONGEST ZIP LINE in the world is Jebel Jais Flight, located in the mountainous desert of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. This Guinness World Record holder is 1.76 miles long (31 football fields) and can reach a speed of 93 miles per hour.
The world’s LONGEST OVER-WATER ZIP LINE is Dragon’s Breath Flight Line at Royal Caribbean cruise line’s resort in Labadee, Haiti. Riders glide in a sitting position for 2,600 feet over the ocean — reaching speeds of about 50 mph before landing on the beach.
THE BSA HAS ITS OWN SUPER ZIP LINE, the Big Zip at The Summit Bechtel Reserve. You can try this 3,000-foot-long wonder at the 2023 National Jamboree, at a summer camp or during a high-adventure program.
In the heart of the snowcapped Himalayas of Nepal, Zipflyer at HighGrounds Adventure Park is the tallest and steepest zip line in the world. It’s also considered the most extreme, with a 2,000-FOOT VERTICAL DROP.
Mega Zips is the world’s only FULLY UNDERGROUND ZIP LINE course. It’s built inside a 100-acre cavern located in Louisville, Kentucky.
WHIZZ ALONGSIDE AN ACTIVE VOLCANO and between mountains on an exciting multi-cable course at Sky Trek Arenal Adventures Park in Costa Rica. You might even spot monkeys on your way down!
Velocity 2 in Bethesda, Wales, is the FASTEST ZIP LINE in the world. Lying horizontally like Superman, riders hurtle down a slate quarry and zoom over a deep blue lake, with top speeds over 100 mph.
Would You Ride One of the 3 Longest Zip-Lines in the World?
Humans have longed to fly through the air for centuries (perhaps eons) before the Wright Brothers glided above the dunes of Kitty Hawk. Extreme athletes have pushed the envelope for decades, seeking to defy gravity in endeavors like base jumping, wingsuit flying, hang gliding, sky diving, and paragliding.
- No. 3: El Monstruo
- No. 2: ZipRider
- No. 1: Jebel Jais Flight
Most of these sports require advanced training and, in some cases, years to obtain the necessary skills (or mindset). However, the advent of zip lining has allowed the average person to experience “flying” without the added training (or danger). Here are the three longest zip lines in the world.
Looking for more extreme adventures? Here are a few you should add to your bucket list.
No. 3: El Monstruo
Orocovis, Puerto Rico
Jimmy Freaks Out Riding Puerto Rico’s «Monster» Zip Line
Located at Toroverde adventure park, El Monstruo sits 1,200 feet above the ground and measures a whopping 8,300 feet long (that’s more than 1.5 miles of cable). Riders reach speeds of up to 95 mph face first and receive a flight certificate upon completion. The zip line’s name in English? The Monster. The park also offers a few shorter, less intense zip-lines in case you’re not quite ready for The Monster.
No. 2: ZipRider
Copper Canyon, Mexico
Copper Canyon Zip Rider
The ZipRider held the world record as the longest zip line by just 50 feet until early 2018. At 8,350 feet long, participants take flight from a launch platform set right on the edge of a canyon at Parque de Aventura Barrancas del Cobre. The two cables run parallel to one another, allowing participants to fly above three different canyons. Those who dare to take the leap will experience a vertical drop of over 1,450 feet as they travel over the fields of a local Tarahumaran community before reaching the landing platform right below the bottom station of the gondola.
No. 1: Jebel Jais Flight
Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates
Longest zipline in the world — ‘Jebel Jais Flight on UAE’s highest mountain in Ras Al Khaimah
Opened in early 2018, the current title-holder of the world’s longest zip line is Jebel Jais Flight in the UAE. It was created in collaboration with the Ras Al Khaimah Tourism Development Authority (RAKTDA) and Toroverde, the same company that created El Monstruo in Puerto Rico. Set atop the country’s tallest mountain, Jebel Jais (6,345 feet), the ride is 9,284 feet (or 1.75 miles) in length. Participants will reach speeds close to 95 mph. Expect to pay $177 for this ride of a lifetime suspended above the rocky terrain.
Article originally published by Mike Richards on June 12, 2017. Last updated by Clay Abney.
How to Live in Your Car Comfortably for a Few Weeks
What is the longest river in the world
The answer to the question «What is the longest river in the world?» may seem simple — you just need to find the source of the river, its mouth and measure the length. But the subjectivity of measurement does not allow this to be done so simply. This is such a complex issue that several hydrologists have explained that river length is no longer considered a fair measure. So, what is the longest river in the world?
There are several ways to answer this.
How long is the river?
According to Laurel Larsen, Associate Professor of Geography at the University of California at Berkeley, “the length of a particular river is the maximum possible continuous distance along the thalweg from its headwaters (a first-order stream) to its mouth.”
To explain these terms, a thalweg is «a line joining the lowest or deepest points along the course of a river or valley.» But the flow of the first order is more complicated. There are two main ways to classify the order of streams, but Strahler’s method is the most common. In this method, streams without tributaries flowing into them — streams that just start in a river — are of the first order. When two first-order streams join together, they form a second-order stream, and when two second-order streams join, they form a third-order stream (but if a first-order stream intersects with a second-order stream, the main river remains a second-order stream). Here is such a riddle for attentiveness.
How the Great Stink of London defeated the pollution of the River Thames.
In this case, the source of the river is considered the furthest distance to the source of a stream that has no tributaries—although in practice this can be extremely difficult to determine. And it’s not a perfect system.
About the mouth — this is also debatable. For some rivers, the mouth is relatively easy to determine. But for large streams that empty into the ocean, like the Amazon, the location of the mouth can make a big difference.
What is the longest river?
As a rule, the Nile River has always been considered the longest river, and the Amazon ranked second. But in 2007, a group of Brazilian scientists announced that a new analysis put the Amazon in first place. They got this result by identifying a new source and, more importantly, a new mouth of the great river. Traditionally, the source of the Amazon was located on the northern side of the island of Marajo. A new study has shown that the river curves around the south side of the island to the Para River, and then flows into the ocean.
Which side of the island the estuary is on may not seem that important, but the island of Marajo is the size of Switzerland. The new source plus the new mouth eventually enlarged the Amazon and made it longer than the Nile.
But even this result is rather controversial. The Para River is usually associated with the Tocantins River, not the Amazon. And later research has generally said that while it does have some Amazonian water, Para is different from the Amazon. This means that for the time being, the championship in the issue of the longest river in the world remains with the Nile.
But there is another, more fundamental problem with measuring a river: what does length even mean?
What is the length of a river?
Early 20th-century mathematician Lewis Fry Richardson observed that Spain and Portugal disagreed about the length of their border. Spain stated that it was 987 km, and Portugal — 1214 km. The disagreement was not about disputed territories or anything like that: Richardson explained that it was the length of the measuring stick. As the ruler gets smaller, it can more accurately capture curves and nuances of twists and turns in complex boundaries.
The same problem occurs when measuring rivers. Rivers have small bends, but if you zoom in, more small bends can appear in the thalweg.
Traces of drugs have been found in rivers around the world. Some levels exceed safety standards!
This is known as the coastline paradox: the length of something complex is basically impossible to determine because the length continues to increase as the scale of measurement decreases.
Both for this reason and for its inherent difficulty in determining its length, several investigators have said that the length of the river does not matter much. What really matters is the catchment area — that is, the area of land from which water enters the river. Unlike the length of a river, multiple height measurements greatly simplify the calculation of this metric. Using this metric, the Amazon is the largest river in the world, with a catchment area of 6.3 million square kilometers. If it were a country, its drainage basin would be the seventh largest country in the world, right after Australia.
how “factories” that process millions of items daily are arranged / Sudo Null IT News
Every day, millions of letters and parcels pass through the sorting nodes of the Russian Post. Our task is to quickly distribute this entire flow in directions. In places through which impressive volumes of shipments pass (as, for example, in Vnukovo, where planes arrive with parcels from China), large sorting complexes are indispensable. Therefore, in large cities — Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan and Novosibirsk and others — we are building huge automated centers.
An automated sorting center is like a factory – in fact, it is. The area of the Post’s largest sorting center, which is located in Vnukovo, is 64,000 square meters. The production capacity of such an ASC is 3 million mail items daily and 125,000 standard letters per hour. The production process here goes around the clock.
In this article, we will tell you how these “factories” are arranged, what kind of machines work there, and how exactly sorting automation helps to speed up the delivery of your letters and parcels.
How the sorting machine works
The sorting machine is an industrial robot that is a conveyor belt with exits. For example, a parcel sorting machine looks like this:
And if we imagine the sorting machine schematically, then this is:
sorting. We calculate it in the MRPL mathematical modeling system once a quarter or every six months for the whole country at once, and each sorting center of the Post works on it. We talked about how such plans are made in the article “Left the sorting center”: how the logistics of the Russian Post are arranged.
What does sorting consist of
The process begins with the items being laid out on the sorter’s belt. Letters, small packages and regular parcels are sorted on different machines. And custom and small packages are also in separate sessions — this division is associated with the method of recognizing the address, which we will talk about a little lower.
This is how the layout of the items on the tape looks like. Here, the operators turn the parcels in a special way so that the scanners read the barcode.
Each sorting machine has a size limit. For example, skis will not fit on the parcel belt. Employees screen out such finds during the initial analysis and send them for manual sorting.
Manual sorting was also not without automation. Wrist scanners are used here to quickly identify the item. Using the device, operators read a barcode to find out which exit to put a letter or package.
Shipments loaded for automatic sorting from different exits flow onto one line and go to the camera, where barcode scanners are located, as well as photo and video cameras that photograph the parcel from all sides in order to find the information necessary for sorting: barcode or index.
The red light in the photo is a working scanner
When registered mail is being sorted, the machine is in barcode reading mode. If a parcel passed through the camera, which the sorting machine did not recognize (its barcode is damaged or not visible), then it is sent to the special “Rejection” exit located at the end of the tape. There, employees manually understand what the problem is. If the barcode is damaged, they will determine the index on their own and take the shipment to the correct exit.
If ordinary mail is sorted, which is not barcoded, then the optical character recognition system (OCR, Optical Character Recognition) works. OCR works like this: a letter on a tape falls under a camera that photographs the item in five projections, finds and recognizes the text, looks for the index and address, and tries to match one with the other. If the text is illegible or the index is forgotten at all, then the photo is sent to the monitor to a special employee who finds and drives the index into the system manually. Therefore, every time someone is too lazy to indicate the index or writes it illegibly, the letter spends a few seconds longer on sorting.
Having received the data from the scanner, the sorting machine compares them with the index from the direction plan and, according to the attributes specified in the sorting rules (index, weight), determines which exit to send the parcel to. And, when the departure arrives at the correct exit, pushes her there. This is due to the synchronization of the movement of the tape and the pusher.
The machine knows which indexes it sent to the filled output, and sends us the message «this output contains items for such and such indices.» At the same moment, a transport unit is automatically formed — knowing which items are collected in a particular outlet, the Sortmaster information system assigns a serial number to the box and prints it to the printer located above the tape. The employee closes the box with a lid and sticks a label on it, which indicates where he will go next.
In order not to carry the collected boxes to the exit manually, they are placed on an additional conveyor line THS, which can sort the finished containers. There are no descents on such a tape, its function is to spread the load closer to the gate.
But in the new sorting center in Novosibirsk, which we will put into operation in the near future, the unloading and loading process is planned to be automated. Here, the shipments will enter the belt and leave it with the help of a telescopic conveyor, which unfolds directly into the car body.
This new conveyor has a scanner that immediately distributes the containers to the sorting lines. It determines what is on the tape and sends the container through the conveyor system to the fork — to the sorter of letters, large or small parcels.
Sorting speed and what affects it
We need sorters that can work for years, 22 hours a day, without breaking or stopping. Therefore, world-class companies have become our suppliers: Toshiba, Siemens, Vanderlande — they have been producing such machines for more than a dozen years.
These companies supply their devices as a hardware and software package. By default, such machines work according to static sorting plans , which are entered when they are first set up. The sorting plan is a file that indicates which indices we throw into output #1, which ones into output #2, and so on. Purchasing the machines along with the software resulted in the fact that we received a third-party control system that only executes the sorting logic pre-built into it. We needed dynamic sorting plan, and here’s why.
Every machine has its performance limits. On average, one letter-sorting machine sorts 40,000 letters per hour; we have two at Vnukovo. Accordingly, the performance of this object is quite high — up to 80 thousand letters per hour.
The parcel machine sorts up to 8 thousand parcels per hour, the sorter belt moves at a speed of 1. 8 m/s. She could go faster, but then, due to the oncoming air flow, small packages will begin to take off and scatter around the workshop, which is unlikely to help speed up the process.
In the case of a static plan, each output, when planning a sort, is assigned its own index groups, which we could not replace. And now let’s imagine that we have 200 destinations, including St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Krasnodar, and we lay out departures only for them.
But let’s assume that the flow of letters to Krasnodar has increased, while to Yaroslavl it has decreased. And after one sorting cycle, the output for Yaroslavl is idle for us. With a static plan, our hands would be tied — we cannot make changes to the logic of the machine and use an empty exit for a more detailed sorting of the grown direction.
We always know in advance what is coming to us for sorting, which means we can predict that one of the exits will be idle, while the other direction is overloaded. This means that in order to sort more efficiently and load machines to the maximum, we need to learn how to change sorting plans in real time — switch to a dynamic sorting plan.
From static to dynamic
To switch to dynamic plans, we at Posttech developed our own software product called SMAB — sorting machine automation bridge.
Sorting Machine Automation Bridge consists of several microservices:
- Portal Back — processes requests from the front, generates reports, allows you to manage user rights.
- Management — designed for validation and registration of marshalling yards by connecting to OPC servers. It also stores the structure of all marshalling yards and provides settings for the processing service.
- Processing — a service that supports asynchronous work with sorting equipment, receives events from the MQTT broker (a protocol that transmits event data between devices), sorts mail through sorting services (Sortmaster, TIAM, etc. ), calls methods on OPC servers, writes the state of the sorting session to the database.
SMAB connects our own information system Sortmaster (we talked about it in the article about how Postal logistics works) with the controllers of the machine. Just the controllers are responsible for pushing the parcel to the right output at a certain moment. And this means that now we ourselves can change the sorting logic — tell the machine what to sort where and change commands on the fly.
SMAB communicates with the machine’s physical controller and with the Sortmaster using the OPC UA protocol, the world’s technological standard for communicating with industrial equipment. This protocol made it possible to find a universal solution for communicating with devices from different manufacturers.
When we see that the distribution of flows has changed — there are no letters to Yaroslavl, but the flow to the Krasnodar Territory has increased, then instead of one common exit (to Krasnodar), we can divide the departures into two at once — to Krasnodar and Sochi. In this way, we will use the idle exit and save time and resources of manual sorting in regional centers. This means that we will deliver shipments to recipients even faster.
The sorting itself now works like this: first, we ask the machine to physically identify the poisoning and, through the OPC UA server, report the result to the IT systems of the Russian Post, or rather, to our SMAB. The detector located on the tape reads information about the shipment — it recognizes the barcode or reads the index and sends the data to MQTT — a data exchange protocol that receives and transmits to us events that occur with shipments on the tape.
The processing service receives a message from the detector and asynchronously sends sorting requests to the sorting services. Simply put, the machine reports «such and such a departure on the tape» and asks what to do with it. To make a decision, we have about one second before the first fork. The processing service receives responses from sorting services with arrays of outputs to which a letter or package needs to be sent and, taking into account the sorting priority, sends a sorting request to the OPC server of the corresponding sorter. As a result, the Sortmaster returns the exit number, which we pass to the machine. The departure, having reached the desired exit, is dumped into it by the pusher.
The operation of the ejectors is controlled by controllers (PLC — programming logic controller), each of which contains an OPC UA Server. SMAB communicates with this server — so the machine knows when to turn and when to stop the drive in order to push the departure to the desired exit.
Also, SMAB will allow us to get away from the manual closing of containers, now the machine can automatically close the sorting exit when it contains a certain number of parcels or a given weight. This is possible because we can see all the parcel parameters in the Sortmaster.
To summarize, sorting with SMAB looks like this: The sorting machine scans the item and asks the sorting master “where to put index 107037?”. The sortmaster analyzes the situation and answers “go to exit number 1” and sends this command to the controller. Everything happens almost in real time — for a second we say that the shipment that you just photographed should be put in exit number 1.
In the next sorting session, the rules may change and this exit may take a different set of indices, if the situation will change.
Moreover, the sorting logic can now be much more complicated than just by indexes. We can use any attributes of a shipment to decide where to put it. It can also be the weight or type of shipment — regular or first class. For example, if you put first class and ordinary parcels mixed on a Sorting Machine with a static plan, then it will not be able to separate them by type of departure and will put the first class and ordinary parcel with the same index in one output. When we use additional logic, where we also indicate the type of departure in sorting, then it becomes possible to decompose into two outputs different types of shipments with the same index. So in exit No. 1 we will have ordinary parcels to St. Petersburg, and in exit No. 2 — first class there. This is just one example of what we can do with the new system. And now all new cars that will appear in the Russian Post will obey this logic.
We call a set of machines within one sorting center a sorting yard. For each station, we make a single setting of the OPC UA server, in which we take into account all possible parameters:
- The structure of the machines: they can be circular or linear, with a different number of exits, with a conventional or reverse conveyor that can go in two directions.
- The internal logic of the sort nodes state: in which direction the conveyor goes — to the input or to the output.
- Transition conditions between states: under what conditions does OCR work, and under what conditions do we scan barcodes.
Server setup fully reflects the physical structure of the machine — there is a method for each output, each OCR, each barcode reader.