Saludo a la bandera usa: El desafortunado saludo a la bandera norteamericana

Juramento de Lealtad — Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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Versiones oficiales (cambios en negrita y cursiva)
1892
“Juro lealtad a mi bandera y la República a la que representa, una nación indivisible con libertad y justicia para todos”.
1892 a 1923
“Juro lealtad a mi bandera y a la República a la que representa, una nación indivisible, con libertad y justicia para todos”.
1923 a 1954
“Juro lealtad a la bandera de los Estados Unidos de América y a la República a la que representa, una nación indivisible, con libertad y justicia para todos”.
1954 al presente
“Juro lealtad a la bandera de los Estados Unidos de América y a la República a la que representa, una nación bajo Dios, indivisible, con libertad y justicia para todos”.

Estudiantes realizando el Juramento a la bandera, 1899.

El Juramento a la bandera o Juramento de lealtad (en inglés Pledge of Allegiance) es un juramento a los Estados Unidos y a su bandera que se suele recitar, al unísono, en acontecimientos públicos y especialmente en las aulas de los colegios públicos, donde el juramento es, a menudo, un ritual matutino. El texto del juramento ha sido modificado en cuatro ocasiones desde su implementación original, el cambio más reciente añadió: bajo Dios (under God) y a partir del 14 de junio de 1954 le versión usada dice así:

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Juro lealtad a la bandera de los Estados Unidos de América y a la república a la que representa, una nación, bajo Dios, indivisible, con libertad y justicia para todos.

Algunos estados como Texas, tienen juramentos de lealtad a su bandera estatal también.

Un extracto del 8 de septiembre de 1892 Youth’s Companion con el texto original del Juramento a la bandera (http://www.firstmention.com/Documents/pledge1.jpg (enlace roto disponible en Internet Archive; véase el historial, la primera versión y la última).).

Un ministro bautista, el socialista Francis Bellamy, escribió el Juramento a la bandera el 11 de octubre de 1892 para la revista infantil Youth’s Companion, con el propósito de conmemorar el IV Centenario del descubrimiento de América por Cristóbal Colón. Fue publicado por primera vez el 12 de octubre del mismo año.[1]

El juramento original dice: I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all («Juro lealtad a mi bandera y la república que representa, una nación indivisible, con libertad y justicia para todos»). Algunos lo veían como una llamada a la unidad nacional, deteriorada por la Guerra de Secesión.

Después de una proclamación por el presidente Benjamin Harrison, el juramento fue recitado por primera vez en los colegios públicos el 12 de octubre de 1892. En una cuestión gramatical menor, se le añadió «a» (to) antes de «la república» (the Republic).

Entre 1923 y 1924, la Conferencia de la Bandera Nacional propuso que se cambiara mi bandera (my Flag) por la bandera de los Estados Unidos de América (the Flag of the United States of America, con el propósito de asegurar que los inmigrantes supieran a qué bandera se hacía referencia. El Congreso de los Estados Unidos reconoció oficialmente el juramento el 28 de diciembre de 1945.

En 1952, el pastor de la Iglesia presbiteriana de la Avenida Nueva York, George Docherty, dio un sermón en el que señalaba que el juramento debería agradecer a Dios. Dos años después, el 7 de febrero de 1954, dio otro sermón en el que nuevamente expuso que la nación debería agradecer a Dios en dicho juramento, aprovechando que el presidente Dwight Eisenhower asistió a ese sermón.

Al día siguiente, el senador de Míchigan Charles G. Oackman, propuso una enmienda al juramento que incluía las palabras under God («bajo Dios» o «sometida a Dios»). El 8 de junio de 1954, luego de un proyecto alcanzado por el presidente Eisehower, el Congreso adoptó esta reforma.

Al principio, se recitaba el juramento con el saludo romano, la mano derecha extendida hacia la bandera. Después de que dicho saludo fuera identificado con el nazismo y el fascismo en los años 1940, se adoptó el saludo en la forma que hoy en día se practica, se coloca la mano sobre el corazón.

Referencias[editar]

  1. ↑ Pledge of Allegiance, recuperado 13 de agosto de 2007.

Véase también[editar]

  • Deísmo ceremonial
  • Michael Newdow
Control de autoridades
  • Proyectos Wikimedia
  • Datos: Q875611
  • Multimedia: Pledge of Allegiance / Q875611

  • Identificadores
  • WorldCat
  • VIAF: 176605835
  • LCCN: n81075624
  • NARA: 10642766
  • Diccionarios y enciclopedias
  • Britannica: url

saludo a la bandera — English translation – Linguee


























El paro general fue, es cierto, un «saludo a la bandera«.

crfiweb.org

crfiweb.org

The general strike was, it is true, purely symbolic.

crfiweb.org

crfiweb.org

Como nica respuesta a nuestras


[…]

legtimas aspiraciones


[…]
slo ofrece un panormico e indiferente saludo a la bandera, en todo cuanto concierne al desarrollo […]

econmico y social, con


[…]

el mismo talante paternalista que orienta la ideologa y la prctica de los Estados poderosos y adems, a veces, un sesgo imperativo de ultimtum, al momento de ofrecer sus recomendaciones para tomarlas o dejarlas, con arrogancia y desconsideracin, para ordenarnos lo que debemos hacer o no hacer.

daccess-ods.un.org

daccess-ods.un.org

Its sole response to our legitimate aspirations is to


[…]

give a generalized and


[…]
indifferent nod in our direction with respect to social and economic development, with the same paternalistic […]

attitude that


[…]

characterizes the ideology and practices of powerful States, and a definite sense of ultimatum, as it provides its recommendations on a take-it-or-leave-it basis, with arrogance and disdain, giving us orders as to what we must and must not do.

daccess-ods.un.org

daccess-ods.un.org


Al da siguiente, Bill lleg a casa y dijo: «Yo ya no saludo a la bandera«.

america.gov

america.gov

The next day Bill came home and said, I stopped saluting the flag.

america.gov

america.gov

Una ceremonia inaugural, por ejemplo, el


[…]
himno nacional, el saludo a la bandera u otra ceremonia […]

habitual de la localidad.

lionsclubs.org

lionsclubs.org

An opening ceremony, e.g., the


[…]
national anthem, salute to the flag, or other local custom

lionsclubs.org

lionsclubs.org

Ha habido muchos otros casos despus de los fallos sobre la


[. ..]
ceremonia del saludo a la bandera, pero todos se […]

han apoyado en la elocuente idea de


[…]

la «estrella fija» del juez Jackson, segn la cual ningn funcionario del gobierno puede dictar qu es lo ortodoxo.

america.gov

america.gov

There have been many other


[…]
cases since the flag salute decisions, but all of […]

them have built upon Justice Jackson’s eloquent


[…]

idea of a «fixed star,» that no government official can prescribe what is orthodox.

america.gov

america.gov

Justo ayer haba soldados armados de


[…]

Eurocorp paseando la bandera de


[. ..]
Europa por el patio, una especie de versin de la Unin Europea del saludo a la bandera.

europarl.europa.eu

europarl.europa.eu

Just yesterday we had armed Eurocorps


[…]

soldiers carrying the European


[…]
flag round the courtyard outside, a sort of European Union version of trooping the colour.

europarl.europa.eu

europarl.europa.eu

El presidente de


[…]
la FENOCIN rechaz REDD porque «es un saludo a la bandera que no resuelve los problemas sino que […]

nos los transfiere».

viacampesina.org

viacampesina.org


FENOCIN?s President rejects REDD because «it doesn?t solve problems, it just transfers them».

viacampesina.org

viacampesina.org

Por ejemplo, en 1943 el Tribunal Supremo de los Estados Unidos confirm el derecho de los


[…]

Testigos de Jehov de no participar, en base a sus creencias religiosas, en las


[…]
ceremonias obligatorias de saludo a la bandera.

america.gov

america.gov

For instance, in 1943 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld


[…]

the right of Jehovah’s Witnesses to refuse to


[…]
participate in compulsory flag-saluting ceremonies […]

based on their religious beliefs.

america.gov

america.gov

Determin que la Clusula de la Libre Expresin no les conceda a los nios


[. ..]

religiosamente motivados, que acuden a las escuelas pblicas, el derecho de eludir la


[…]
ceremonia obligatoria de saludo a la bandera.

america.gov

america.gov

Ruled that the Free Exercise Clause did not give religiously motivated public school children the right to opt


[…]
out of a compulsory flag-salute ceremony.

america.gov

america.gov

Washington— En Estados Unidos, la


[…]

mayora de los encuentros deportivos


[…]
profesionales comienzan con un saludo a la bandera estadounidense, y los [. ..]

juegos de campeonato de la Conferencia estadounidense


[…]

de ftbol (AFC) del 24 de enero no fueron una excepcin.

america.gov

america.gov

Washington — In the United States, most professional sporting events


[…]
start with a salute to the American flag, and the January […]

24 American Football


[…]

Conference (AFC) championship game was no exception.

america.gov

america.gov

Y sent, ay!, que


[…]
si no haca el saludo a la bandera echara a perder […]

todo esto.

america. gov

america.gov

And I felt that, Oh,


[…]
if I stop saluting the flag, I will blow all this!

america.gov

america.gov

Durante cada da escolar y en todas las asambleas escolares, concursos o reuniones pblicas, se recitar la Promesa de Lealtad y/o el himno de


[…]

los Estados Unidos de Norteamrica


[…]
ser recitado o representado musicalmente, seguido por el saludo a la bandera de Texas.

schools.springisd.org

schools.springisd.org

During each school day and at all school assemblies, contests or public meetings,


[…]

the Pledge of Allegiance and/or the


[. ..]
Star Spangled Banner will be said or played, followed by the Salute to the Texas flag.

springisd.org

springisd.org

Los grupos de Banda, Coro, Danza, Orquesta, Mariachi y


[…]

Folklrico de la escuela Hoover harn una


[…]
presentacin corta durante nuestro saludo a la bandera el primer viernes del mes.

sjusd.org

sjusd.org

The Hoover Band, Choir, Dance, Orchestra, Mariachi


[…]

and Folkloric dancers will do a short performance at


[…]
Trace during our community flag salute the first Friday of the month.

sjusd.org

sjusd.org

Sin embargo, lo importante es por qu fue necesario, a cuatro meses de iniciado el


[…]
gobierno centroizquierdista, «saludar a la bandera«.

crfiweb.org

crfiweb.org

However, the important thing is why it was necessary, four


[…]
months after the start of the center-left government, […]

to take even symbolic measures.

crfiweb.org

crfiweb.org

Las reuniones


[…]
del saln, el saludo a la bandera, el programa […]

de desarrollo humano y de valores, las conversaciones con los


[. ..]

administradores, la comunicacin con los padres y una variedad del manejo del saln de clases permiten la observancia de estos principios de conducta, ayudando as a los estudiantes a ser socialmente responsables, respetuosos y auto- disciplinados.

asfg.mx

asfg.mx


Class meetings, flag assemblies, the human development […]

and values program, conversations with administrators, communication


[…]

with parents, and a variety of classroom management systems facilitate the observance of these principles of conduct thus helping students become socially responsible, respectful, and self-disciplined.

asfg.mx

asfg.mx

El día escolar comenzaba con una


[…]
oración seguido por el saludo a la bandera.

autismpotential.info

autismpotential.info

The school day began with prayer followed


[…]
by the pledge of allegiance to the flag.

autismpotential.info

autismpotential.info

describir el significado y propsito de los smbolos y


[…]

canciones de


[…]
Estados Unidos: bandera, guila, Estatua de la Libertad, el Saludo a la Bandera: Pledge of Allegiance, las canciones: «Amrica,» «Amrica […]

the Beautiful»


[…]

y el Himno Nacional:»The Star Spangled Banner

sjusd.org

sjusd.org

describe meaning and purpose of American symbols


[. ..]
and songs: flag, eagle, Statue of Liberty, Pledge of Allegiance, «America,» «America the Beautiful» and «The Star Spangled Banner

sjusd.org

sjusd.org


19 8:45 am Saludo a la bandera communitario

sjusd.org

sjusd.org


19 8:45 am Community Flag Salute

sjusd.org

sjusd.org


Un polica saluda la bandera brasilea en lo alto del […]

cerro Alemo despus de ingresar en la favela de Rio de Janeiro el 28 de noviembre.

infosurhoy.com

infosurhoy.com


A policeman salutes the Brazilian flag atop Alemo hill [. ..]

after entering the slum in Rio de Janeiro on Nov. 28.

infosurhoy.com

infosurhoy.com

Cada maana


[…]
despus de que el saludo de la bandera, estudiantes […]

cante el himno nacional y escuche el prembulo la constitucin.

fusd.net

fusd.net


Each morning after the flag salute, students sing the […]

national anthem and listen to the preamble to the constitution.

fusd.net

fusd.net

Cuando los guardias de asalto entran en la ciudad y pasan frente al edificio


[…]
central de la C.N.T., varios cientos de ellos saludan la bandera roja y negra.

lacucaracha.info

lacucaracha.info

When the Assault Guards entered the city and passed by the


[…]

central building of the Anarchist CNT, several


[…]
hundreds of them salute the black and red Anarchist flag on the building.

lacucaracha.info

lacucaracha.info

Si permanecieron firmes y en silencio durante la ceremonia de la bandera mientras sus


[…]
compaeros de clase y sus profesores saludaban la bandera, cantaban el himno nacional y recitaban […]

la declaracin patritica, es evidente que esta


[…]

conducta no poda perturbar la paz ni suponer «un peligro grave y presente de dao grave a la seguridad pblica, la moral, la sanidad o cualquier otro inters pblico legtimo que el Estado tiene el derecho de impedir».

ccprcentre.org

ccprcentre.org

If they quietly stood at


[…]
attention during a flag ceremony while their classmates and teachers saluted the flag, sang the national […]

anthem and recited the patriotic pledge, it was obvious that such conduct


[…]

would not disturb the peace or pose «a grave and present danger of a serious evil to public safety, morals, health or any other legitimate public interest that the State has a right to prevent.

ccprcentre.org

ccprcentre.org

Los smbolos utilizados por los grupos ms pequeos dentro del


[…]

Movimiento pueden incluir por


[…]
ej. una ceremonia para la Promesa, un apretn de manos o un saludo, una cancin o la bandera de la patrulla y la ceremonia de clausura en una fogata de [. ..]

campamento.

wagggs.org

wagggs.org

Symbols used by


[…]
smaller groups within the Movement can include such things as a Promise ceremony, a special handshake or a greeting, a patrol song or flag, and a closing […]

ceremony at a camp-fire.

wagggs.org

wagggs.org

Pero uno de los juegos


[…]
concluy con un saludo a una bandera diferente cuando uno de los atletas estelares despleg la bandera de Hait, al […]

recibir su equipo el trofeo al vencedor.

america.gov

america.gov


But it closed with a salute to a different banner when one of the game’s star athletes unfurled the flag of Haiti as his […]

team received the victor’s trophy.

america.gov

america.gov

The United States has already collaborated with Bandera and it is not surprising that they are helping neo-Nazis now — InoTV

Immediately after World War II, Western countries refused to extradite Sepan Bandera and other Ukrainian collaborators to the Soviet Union, although they knew about their crimes, writes antiwar.com. Therefore, it is not surprising that Washington still supports the Ukrainian authorities, the author of the article, Ted Snyder, notes.

Volodymyr Zelensky defeated Petro Poroshenko in the elections with promises to resolve Donbass issues peacefully within the framework of the Minsk agreements, recalls philosopher Ted Snyder in his article for antiwar. com. According to him, the residents of Donetsk and Luhansk made a choice in favor of independence from Ukraine after “ in 2014, a US-backed coup d’état brought to power a government appointed by US .» And then from a supporter of the Minsk agreements to their opponent, Zelensky was driven by pressure from the extreme right ultranationalists. At the same time, according to the author of the article, neo-Nazi parties in Ukraine have much more power, which is disproportionate to their low support in society.

It is these ultra-nationalist groups, writes the author of the article, who reformatted the peaceful protest in 2014. They opposed a peace settlement, a ceasefire and elections. According to Ted Snyder, there is now evidence that the riots and civil war on February 20, 2014 did not start because of government forces, but because of snipers from ultra-nationalist rebels. And it was they who occupied government buildings and forced the president of the country to flee.

And after the coup d’état, they began to fight against the Donbass, the author of the article continues. At the same time, the Azov battalion was officially part of the Ukrainian National Guard. They became the « new norm of state building » in Ukraine and part of the government itself, holding a number of ministerial posts: national security, defense, justice; even the Deputy Prime Minister was an ultra-nationalist. Andriy Parubiy was one of the founders of the Svoboda association, a movement known for its national activism, and he became the secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine.

The author of the material refers to an article by Princeton professor Stephen Cohen, which states that the coup in Ukraine led to the rehabilitation and honoring of the memory of Ukrainian collaborators. Among them is Stepan Bandera, who collaborated with the Nazis and committed crimes against Jews, Poles and Russians. The author of the article cites the words of another publicist, Richard Sakwa, who wrote that Bandera adopted tough nationalism, which implies the definition of the Ukrainian nation around one ethnic group. They note that Bandera took part in the massacres of people. In particular, they are accused of pogroms in Eastern Galicia, in which 12,000 Jews were killed, and the murder of 40,000 Poles in Volhynia.

During World War II, Ukrainian nationalists fought for the creation of an ethnically unified state, and for this they staged ethnic cleansing, the author of the article writes. He quotes their slogan: “ Long live the great, independent Ukraine without Jews, Poles and Germans. The Poles — across the San River, the Germans — to Berlin, and the Jews — to the gallows .

The author of the article notes that the connection of Ukrainian nationalists with Nazi Germany, as well as the participation of neo-Nazis in the 2014 coup, is still at least slightly covered in the West, albeit not in the central media. But at the same time, it’s not in vain that Russia today says that the United States is helping Ukrainian neo-Nazis to fight the Russians and try to overthrow the regime in Russia, because in the old days it was like that – this is not heard at all.

Thus, the author of the article writes that in September 1947, American intelligence came across a group of Ukrainian partisans in Germany. CIA expert John Prados claimed that his own leadership ordered these guerrillas to move west to attract the attention of Western intelligence. And then they began cooperation with the United States and Great Britain in order to fight against the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

At the same time, back in 1946, the USSR demanded the extradition of Stepan Bandera, but the United States kept him under their protection, although American intelligence had information that testified to his war crimes, the author writes. And later, Great Britain and the United States sorted out their partners: London began to cooperate with Bandera, and the United States with his colleague Mikola Lebed.

Evidence of this close connection has been preserved in the archives of the CIA and American counterintelligence. Moreover, in these documents, the movement headed by Lebed is directly called “ terrorist organization ”, and he himself was accused of murders. In the United States, the question of deporting Lebed was even raised, but CIA Director Allen Dulles insisted that he had « invaluable value » for his department.

A secret CIA report of April 1948 notes that former collaborators may be valuable to the US government for purposes of propaganda, sabotage, and anti-communist political activism. The operation was called «Aerodynamics», and experts cite the words of CIA officer Frank Wisner, who noted that in the context of the development of the resistance movement in Ukraine, it must be expanded and used to wage political and psychological war against the USSR. But in the end, the CIA admitted: the operation failed.

Therefore, the author of the article on antiwar.com concludes, since the United States and its allies have collaborated with the Ukrainian Nazis in the past, it is quite possible to believe that they are doing this now.

USA and Bandera: a secret alliance / Politics

How the fight against the USSR smoothly turned into a fight against Russia
The American portal Antiwar. com published a long article «US cooperation with neo-Nazis in Ukraine: an inconvenient story.» As it turns out, Washington established and maintained ties with Bandera adherents from the very beginning of the Cold War.

In September 1947, writes the author of the article Ted Schneider, US intelligence discovered a group of Ukrainian militants in Germany. Referring to the book of CIA expert John Prados “Safe for Democracy”, he notes that the Supreme Liberation Council of Ukraine (a structure of the OUN * banned in Russia) ordered everyone to go to the West. Thus began «the story of a secret marriage between the US, Britain and Ukrainians, who had previously collaborated with the Nazis, in their underground war against the Soviet Union» .

Prados writes that in 1946 Stalin demanded the extradition of Bandera, but the Americans provided him with protection (Operation Anyface), although they had information that he was a war criminal.

In the book Legacy of Ashes: The Story of the CIA, American writer Tim Weiner tells that at the initiative of US Secretary of Defense James Forrestal «Ukrainian resistance forces» were instructed «to wage a secret war against Stalin» .

A secret CIA report to the National Security Council in April 1948 described future cooperation with Ukrainian collaborators and noted «their high value to the US government for the purpose of propaganda and anti-communist political activities, as well as sabotage.» Operation codenamed «AERODYNAMIC» (Operation AERODYNAMIC)
was started by the CIA in 1948. Frank Wiesner of the CIA says: «Given the scale and activity of the resistance movement in Ukraine, we considered this project to be of the highest priority» .

Antiwar.com author Ted Schneider notes that Zelensky “under strong pressure from neo-Nazi parties with great power disproportionate to their low popular support, backtracked on his campaign promise of peace and refused to talk to Donbass leaders and to implement the Minsk agreements » .

Schneider argues that the snipers who participated in the massacre that took place in Kyiv on February 20, 2014 and preceded the coup d’état were not regular troops, but members of ultra-nationalist militant groups (Svoboda*, Right Sector, banned in Russia*). It was they who seized the government building and forced Yanukovych to flee. It was they who became the “legitimate part of the Maidan” and the “new norm of Ukrainian statehood”, having joined the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

Stephen Cohen, Emeritus Professor of Russian Studies from Princeton, in an article about Ukraine «America’s Conspiracy with Neo-Nazis» noted that the putschist regime established in Ukraine did everything to perpetuate the memory of Ukrainian collaborators who collaborated with Nazi Germany.

In general, the Americans began to use Bandera against the USSR earlier than Ted Schneider believes. In mid-1946, American intelligence agencies launched two projects with the participation of Ukrainians who ended up in the western zones of occupation of Germany after the war (“Belladonna” and “Lynx”). The projects were aimed at gathering information about the Soviet military administration in Germany.

In March 1948, a report entitled «The Use of Refugees from the Soviet Union in the National Interests of the United States» appeared.

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