Isla de mona pr: Isla de Mona | Discover Puerto Rico

Isla de Mona — Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Coordenadas: 18°05′12″N 67°53′22″O / 18.086666666667, -67.889444444444

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Este artículo trata sobre una isla del Caribe. Para un grupo de islas del mar de Kara, véase Islas de Mohn.

Imagen de satélite de isla de Mona.

La isla de la Mona es una isla habitada ubicada al oeste de Puerto Rico, perteneciente al Municipio Autónomo de Mayagüez localizado en la costa oeste del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.

Es la mayor de las tres islas ubicadas en el canal de la Mona, estrecho entre la República Dominicana y Puerto Rico, las otras son el islote Monito y la isla Desecheo.

La isla de Mona, junto al islote Monito, constituyen una reserva natural gestionada por el Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico.

Índice

  • 1 Características
  • 2 Reserva natural
  • 3 Véase también
  • 4 Referencias
  • 5 Enlaces externos

Características[editar]

Su clima es tropical y tiene una superficie aproximada de 55 km².

La isla está más cerca de la República Dominicana pero le pertenece al archipiélago puertorriqueño. En la isla se dan caminatas y exploraciones.

Hay investigaciones sobre la flora y fauna de la isla por entidades educativas (como la Universidad de Puerto Rico) y agencias estatales y federales.

Reserva natural[editar]

La Reserva Natural Isla de la Mona se localiza en el canal de la Mona, a medio camino entre República Dominicana y Puerto Rico, aproximadamente a 70 km al oeste de Puerto Rico. La Reserva Natural Isla de Mona es la AMP más grande del país comprendiendo 157.379 ha (38,889 acres) con sus límites extendiendo 9 millas náuticas desde su costa e incluyendo a Monito; un pequeño islote a 6 km al noroeste de Mona. El área terrestre de Mona es 5.566 ha (13,753 acres) y de Monito es 14 ha (34 acres).

Estas islas se derivaron de la deposición de carbonato cálcico en el fondo marino y subsiguiente levantamiento durante el Mioceno hace 24 – 25 millones de años. Especies terrestres endémicas se encuentran en ambas islas, incluyendo plantas, anfibios, reptiles, y pájaros, y hábitats marinos diversos están presentes, tales como arrecifes coralinos, pastos marinos y paredes-acantilado verticales sumergidas.

El origen del nombre Mona deriva del nombre de un jefe taíno (indio nativo) llamado ‘Amona’, quien habitó la isla previo a la colonización española.

Mona estuvo habitada por piratas, recolectores de guano, pescadores y cazadores, entre otros.

En 1919, Mona fue declarada Bosque Insular por el gobernador de Puerto Rico Arthur Yager y en 1986 Mona y Monito se designaron como la Reserva Natural Isla de la Mona por el Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA) de Puerto Rico. Solamente personal del DRNA habita permanentemente la isla de Mona, mientras que visitantes bajo permiso previo pueden acampar, transitar, pescar y cazar; esto último cabras y cerdos salvajes. La Reserva Natural Isla de la Mona representa un laboratorio para la investigación científica incluyendo arqueología, geología, oceanografía, manejo de especies exóticas, y conservación de especies amenazadas (e.g., iguana de roca, tortugas marinas, y pájaros endémicos).

Véase también[editar]

  • Antillas
  • Mar Caribe
  • Faro de la Isla de Mona

Referencias[editar]

  1. ↑ «Sistema de Información de Nombres Geográficos: Isla de Mona». Geographic Names Information System (en inglés).

Enlaces externos[editar]

  • Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Isla de Mona.
Control de autoridades
  • Proyectos Wikimedia
  • Datos: Q94899
  • Multimedia: Mona Island / Q94899

  • Identificadores
  • WorldCat
  • VIAF: 240514343
  • GND: 4342261-5
  • NARA: 10036952
  • Diccionarios y enciclopedias
  • Britannica: url
  • Patrimonio histórico
  • NRHP: 93001398

La presencia tana en isla de Mona

La presencia tana en Isla de Mona

Por Walter A. Cardona Bonet

(c) CopyRight — Prohibido copiar, reproducir

La tragedia demogrfica de los tanos en
Puerto Rico
Visite nuestra seccin Tanos

La isla de Mona se encuentra a unos 73.6 km.
de la costa oeste
de Puerto Rico. Cubre
un
rea de 14,043 cuerdas.

Entre sus playas,
se destacan Sardinera
y
Pjaros. Algunas
de sus cuevas se
extienden
por varios kilmetros
y en varias de ellas
se observan petroglifos
tanos.

A mediados del siglo
19 se desarroll
en
la Isla de Mona una
actividad minera
para
extraer fosfato,
que se extendi hasta
principios
del siglo 20.

Entre su extica fauna, que incluye especies
acuticas, tortugas marinas, insectos y aves,
sobresale la iguana de gran tamao.

A ISLA DE MONA queda casi en medio del Canal que lleva
su nombre, localizado entre
la Repblica
Dominicana y Puerto Rico,
ms prximo a la
primera que a nuestra Isla
por su lado occidental.

Los restos arqueolgicos
indgenas hasta
ahora identificados en
la isla de Mona han
sido interpretados por
los antroplogos e
historiadores como el resultado
de una base
o punto de enlace compartido
por los grupos
aruacos de la regin oriental
de la Repblica
Dominicana con los existentes
en la zona
occidental de la Isla de
Puerto Rico. Los
estudios arqueolgicos
de los aos 1930,
los de fines de la dcada
del 1970 y los
iniciados a principios
de los ochenta, no
nos han sealado sino un
puado de yacimientos
cermicos y la existencia
de por lo menos
un residuo pre-cermico.

Sea como puente de culturas anexas o como punto de recalada de navegacin,
la faceta histrica de
la isla de Mona registra
un pequeo ncleo de habitantes
indgenas
en 1494. En septiembre
de ese ao, el Almirante
don Cristbal Coln fue auxiliado por ellos cuando sufri un
colapso fsico prximo
a la Mona en ruta
a las islas Caribes.

A principios del siglo
XX, el historiador
Cayetano Coll y Toste pretendi
mistificar
esa base indgena con la
mencin de un supuesto
cacicazgo, administrado
por «Amon»,
con el mero propsito de
resaltar la importancia
histrico-cultural del
elemento indgena
y espaol en la vida del
borincano durante
esos aos difciles de
penetracin norteamericana.
No empece a ello, el anlisis
de las fuentes
documentales espaolas
nos ha confirmado
que los indios destacados
en la Mona en esos
primeros aos de historia
escrita formaban
una serie de villorrios
o pequeos poblados
que parecen confirmarse
de modo arqueolgico.

La primera explotacin del elemento indgena de la Isla surgi despus de 1502 cuando
fray Nicols de Ovando
trajo desde Espaa
sobre dos mil hombres que
causaron la devastacin
de las fuentes alimenticias
de los poblados
aruacos de la Repblica
Dominicana. Para
minimizar la dependencia
de los lentos envos
alimenticios provenientes
de Espaa y las
Islas Canarias, fue necesario
establecer
bases de sembrados y zonas
de abasto inmediatos
en los islotes y cayos
dentro de las rutas
navegables del perodo
como lo fueron las
islas de Santa Cruz (actualmente
Saint Croix),
San Juan de Boriqun (Puerto
Rico), Mona,
Saona y Catalina.

Con las intensas campaas militares en la
regin oriental del Higey
de la actual Repblica
Dominicana, al militar
Juan Ponce de Len
se le adjudic el control
y desarrollo de
los ncleos de aprovisionamientos
necesarios
en los cayos e islotes
del Canal de la Mona.
La isla de Mona, cuyos
residentes mantenan
estrechas relaciones con
el distrito del
Higey en territorio dominicano,
pas a ser
una de ellas.

Sin embargo, el crecimiento de ese primer poblado nace al tiempo de la conquista y colonizacin
de la Isla de San Juan
Bautista de Boriqun
—nuestro Puerto Rico—
entre 1506 al 1508.
Los restos primordiales de este asentamiento parecen
ser los descritos por el
arquelogo Irving Rouse en la dcada del 1930 como localizados en
la extensin central del
sector de Sardinera,
costa oeste de la isla
de Mona. Cuando Juan
Ponce de Len impulsa su
empresa de conquista
y colonizacin de Puerto
Rico en agosto de
1508, ste ha de abastecerse
en la Mona de
pan cazabe y ropas hechas
de algodn. Un
ao despus, con el debido
permiso del gobernador
Ovando, Ponce de Len envi
por ms cazabe,
batatas y otros productos
de la Mona. Para
este tiempo sabemos que
la pequea colonia
indgena haba sido reforzada
por un grupo
de hasta ochenta indios
expresamente colocados
all por los esfuerzos
del conquistador Juan
Ponce de Len.

Con la llegada de don Diego
Coln como Virrey
de las Indias en 1509,
se estableci un conflicto
de poder entre ste y el
monarca de Espaa.
La isla de Mona sufri
diversos altercados
en esta encrucijada dado
a la importancia
econmica que adquirieron
sus cultivos y
elaboraciones. La rica
produccin inclua
el pan tano, la pesca,
maz, trtolas, tortugas,
melones, hamacas y ropa.
Su exportacin haba
alcanzado grandes proporciones
comerciales
sirviendo de sustento para
las diversas expediciones
colonizadoras al Centro
y Sur Amrica; en
las operaciones mineras
del Toa, Luquillo,
Utuado y San Germn en
Borinquen; y en las
armadas despachadas a buscar
esclavos a las
Antillas Menores y Sur
Amrica.

El rey Fernando de Espaa, quien haba tardamente tratado de adjudicarse
la isla de Mona para sus
indios encomendados
en Borinquen en 1511, no
tuvo ms opcin
que ver fortalecer la misma.
Como incentivo
para asegurar su productividad
se le concedi
un mayor nmero de indios
a don Bartolom
Coln, to del Virrey don Diego Coln. Con
la muerte de Bartolom
Coln en 1514, el
rey Fernando [ilustracin
a la derecha] volvi
a insistir en la toma de
la Mona como hacienda
personal para as sustentar
los indios que
tena en la isla de San
Juan, pero no fue
hasta finales del ao 1514
o principios del
1515 que la isla pas a
su poder.

Los indios destacados en
Mona gozaban de
la merced de ser solamente
dedicados al cultivo,
pesca y fabricacin de
hamacas y ropa evitando
as sucumbir bajo la ardua
tarea de la extraccin
minera. De igual manera
no pagaban tributos
al Estado sobre la produccin
islea fomentndose
as la agricultura y las
destrezas manuales.
Para esta poca los indios
empleados en la
Mona haban sido reforzados
por indgenas
de una multitud de culturas;
siendo algunos
oriundos de la Isla, otros
de las Antillas
Menores, Las Bahamas, Puerto
Rico, y La Espaola.

En 1516 Fernando muere, tomando posesin provisional de la isla
el Cardenal Cisneros hasta
ser encomendada
a Francisco de Barrionuevo
en 1519, sujeto
que vena administrndola
desde 1513. Barrionuevo
tom posesin de la isla
en 1520 encomendndosele
la indoctrinacin cristiana
de los indgenas,
la conservacin e industrializacin
all
existente, y el pago de
diezmos a la iglesia
y al rey sobre la produccin.
Le sirvieron
de mayordomos o capataces
los seores: Alonso
de Barrientos, Antonio
del Espinal y Alonso
Prez Roldn.

En 1524 el obispo de Puerto Rico don Alonso
Manso, interesado en acaparar
la mayor cantidad
de fuentes de ingreso en
la Isla, procedi
a formular cargos contra
diversos oficiales
reales, hacendados y encomenderos.
A Francisco
de Barrionuevo le trat
de confiscar su valiosa
encomienda de la isla de
Mona. En la causa
presentada por Pedro Snchez
de Valtierra
en nombre del obispo Manso
[ver ilustracin
a la derecha], se peda
el pago de diezmos
y primicias del pan cazabe
y otras cosas
provenientes de la Mona
que al parecer no
haban sido remitidas.
Todava para la dcada
del 1530 el caso se ventilaba
en las cortes
espaolas mientras que
Barrionuevo se haba
trasladado a Sur Amrica.
Sabemos por fuentes
documentales que para el
1537 la poblacin
indgena de la isla de
Mona haba diezmado
considerablemente a causa
de la excesiva
explotacin de los mismos.
Es posible que,
siendo la isla de Mona
y la costa Oeste de
Puerto Rico trampolines
de emigracin ilegal
para los espaoles rumbo
a las conquistas
del Sur y Centro Amrica
desde inicios de
la dcada del 1530, muchos
de los indgenas
fueran ilcitamente confiscados
y exportados.

La decadencia irreversible de los indios de
la Mon
a haba comenzado. A manos de las injusticias
espaolas haban sucumbido
muchos y otros
pasaron a ser la propiedad
de invasores no
hispanos que empezaron a asolar los parajes costeros
de Puerto Rico y La Espaola en 1522. No
solamente atacaron las naves espaolas [a la derecha: rplica de nave espaola del
siglo 15] que atravesaban el Canal de la Mona sino
que visitaron a su antojo a la Mona abastecindose
de las cosechas indgenas, atemorizando los
pocos espaoles que residan y supervisaban
las operaciones agrcolas, y hasta hundiendo
buques y secuestrando indios. En 1543, el
ltimo de los espaoles sali de la isla
ahuyentado por los ataques y por el desaliento
econmico creado por las nuevas leyes que
le daban la libertad al indgena. Con el
abandono de supervisin, los enemigos de
Espaa obtuvieron de los indios la informacin
necesaria para mejorar sus oportunidades
de apresar buques y adems huir de las fuerzas
navales espaolas despachadas en su bsqueda.
Contina en la p. 2

Secret islands in Corsairs: To each his own (KKS)

And again we return to the analysis of the topic of islands in of the cult series of Russian games about pirates and naval battles — in Corsairs . And more precisely, in Corsairs: To each his own (KKS) .

It is hardly a secret for anyone that there are hidden islands in the game Corsairs , which, as the name implies, are not displayed on the global map .

They will have to be searched at the coordinates , moreover, you can get to them only from the moment Charles receives the above coordinates in the course of completing tasks .

The search process for can be facilitated by mod , which displays the boundaries of the water areas of the islands either on a global map or on in-game maps in the atlas. Whether you install modifications in Corsairs To each his own (KKS) or not, in any case, our guide will come in handy for you.

Corsairs To each his own Isla de Coche. Corsairs secret islands

And the first in the list is Isla de Coche , which we will visit during the second story quest “Dutch Gambit” . The island is interesting not only for its participation in history, but also for the presence of mangaros .

  • The first one can be found in Buccaneer’s Bay near a lonely rock on the coast;
  • The second is located in the center of the island, in the jungle, grows close to the path;
  • The third and last you will find a little to the right of the entrance to the cave.

We remind you that the Mangarosa in Corsairs: To each his own (KKS) can only be picked up on the first visit to the location in the game — after leaving the area, it disappears.

Approximate coordinates for Isla de Coche: N 12° 49’; W 64° 41’ . Let’s move on to the next one!

Corsairs To each his own Island of Justice. Corsairs secret islands

Next we have Island of Justice , aka OS , and calling it an island is a clear exaggeration. However, it meets the other criteria. In the previous part of the series, the OS was called City of Lost Ships .

This is the only such location where you do not get through the sea . The first visit to the Isle of Justice will take place during the quest “Return of the Baron” .

Approximate Island of Justice coordinates: N 24° 18’; W 83° 59’ . Move on.

Corsairs Skeleton reef to each his own. Corsairs secret islands

Skeleton Reef , where we will get to according to the story as part of the task “Shadows of the Past” . It is especially distinguished by the battle with the “boss” taking place on it. When visiting the Skeleton Reef, don’t forget to pick up the Mangarosa growing behind the house ! We remind you that in Korsary: ​​To each his own (Korsary, KKS) you can pick up only when visiting the location for the first time in a game — after leaving the area, it disappears.

Approximate coordinates for Skeleton Reef Island: N 21° 33’; W 78° 45’ . We continue!

Corsairs To each his own Crab Island. Corsairs secret islands

When visiting this island for the first time, be sure to land alone !

Crab island is very small. You will visit it during quest “In Search of the Guardian of Truth” . With the exception of the plot events taking place on it, Crab Island does not stand out in anything special.

Approximate coordinates of Crab Island: N 16° 14’; W 71° 36’ . Well, on to the next one.

Corsairs To each his own The insidious island of Xochitham. Corsairs secret islands

Be sure explore the island in its entirety and in detail , otherwise you risk reaching the “bad” ending!

Here we have an island Xochitem . As you might guess, we visit this place on the quest “The insidious island of Xochitem” . Highly distinguished by the battle with a special kind of opponents, including the “boss”. In them, can help you Daga «Claw of the Leader» .

Don’t be afraid to miss the Mangarosa — despite the size of Xochitham Island, it just doesn’t grow here.

Approximate coordinates of Xochitham Island: N 16° 7’; W 79° 53’ . Now on to the next island.

Corsairs To each his own Isla mona. Corsairs Secret Islands

Players of Corsairs 3 are very familiar with this island — it’s the first time in the series that it appears there.

Isla Mona is brought into the game in DLC “Under the Black Flag” , and we will visit it on the quest “Treasures of the Free Jarl” . Here, in the future, we will be able to organize free parking of small ships , as well as own a warehouse for goods and a house for Charles .

Approximate coordinates for Isla Mona: N 18° 47’; W 72° 30′ . And then we have…


Corsairs To each his own Cael Roa Island. Corsairs secret islands

Cael Roa island . Another island that is present in the game only in the presence of DLC , but now we are talking about “Kaleuche” . We find it within the eponymous quest.

Note that on the island of Kael Roa grows immediately two mangaros . We remind you that in Corsairs: To Each His Own (KKS) you can pick up mangaros only when you first visit the location for the game — after leaving the area, it disappears.

The first mangarosa grows in the reef bay, the second mangarosa can be found in the location with the temple in the place where the foot of the temple rests against the rocks, in the very corner.

Approximate coordinates for Cael Roa: N 19° 42’; W 62° 36’ .

If you are interested in the full map of Corsairs To each his own, we recommend reading given material .

We hope you found this material useful!

You have read an article prepared during the development of Corsairs Legacy, a pirate life simulation game, in order to popularize the marine theme in general and pirate games in particular.

You can follow the news of the project on our website, as well as on the YouTube channel and in Telegram.

You can learn more about our project and add it to your wishlist on the game page on Steam.

Game session Game report. Gears of War | Battle of Legends | claustrophobia | Isla Dorada | all about board games

Posted another report on the blog, in which I cry about the fact that I could not play for two weeks 🙂

As usual — here briefly.

Gears of War

Played together with my wife. We chose the «Belly of the Beast» scenario, which we have already unsuccessfully tried several times when playing for 3-4 players. We chose a familiar scenario to compare how difficult the game for two is lower than for the full squad. The difficulty turned out to be so low that the game was simply boring 🙁

When we played with a large team, with great difficulty, constantly falling and balancing on the verge of losing, we only reached the second level. And after the generation of the second level, they died from a wave of enemies that appeared there. Now, without straining at all, we went through the half-empty corridors to the second level, opened a passage to the third level with the help of the remote control, returned to the beginning, went to the third level, installed the equipment necessary according to the scenario and quite easily protected it from the onslaught of enemies. During the entire game there were only a few sharp moments when we were pinned down from both sides. Lena fell down once. But it was still too simple and therefore boring.

I think Gears of War solo or for two is broken. As I understand it, the fact is that although the randomness in the game is relatively controlled (the number of attack / defense dice affect the result of the attack), but sometimes there are very unsuccessful throws when a weak opponent can immediately knock down a healthy fighter. When this happens when playing for four, it is not critical, but only adds spice and tactics to the game. After all, the rest of the players need to quickly adapt to the situation: raise the fallen, distract enemies while he restores health, play recovery cards, etc. If this happens in a solo or doubles game, it is fraught with loss. And the annoyance of the players, because who likes it when, after a long game, one bad throw suddenly ends everything. Therefore, the authors decided to prevent such situations by greatly reducing the number of enemies, according to the complexity of the game.

In general, my opinion is that the 1-2 player game is too easy and boring. The game for 3-4 characters is complex, furious, and therefore very tense, atmospheric. It requires players to learn how to play it, work as a team, use maps, terrain and special abilities of the characters correctly, and only then will the players begin to succeed in finishing the games with victories. Such a game captures and captivates, challenges, as it should be. So I advise even if there are not enough participants to play with a large number of characters, for example, take control of three characters in a solo game, and four characters in a two-player game (each controls two fighters). I think this will be much more interesting.

Battle of the Legends

She took the mage Rain, I’m the warrior Megmizer. In the first battle, I won due to resistance and defense cards. In the second battle, Lena, having pumped, already had powerful attacking spells and took me out. The decisive battle was quite interesting. Lenin the magician was losing, he had 4 lives left. I was about to finish him off with Iron Fist, but she pulled him out of melee and I had no movement cards left in my hand. And the next turn, she hit me with a “nuke”, and then threw a meteorite on my head, which I did not survive, despite the existing defense card.

The game doesn’t make any splash, but overall it’s not bad. Would like to play more.

Claustrophobia

Finally, we played enough of the basic scenarios, and moved on to additional ones. They played the scenario «Salvation», according to which the floor collapsed under Redemar and he disappeared in the catacombs, but remained alive. This was evidenced by the activity of one of his magical artifacts — a bottle of healing potion. The rest of the team decided to break into the lower levels of the catacombs, using the artifact as a kind of detector, find the injured leader, and bring him out of the dungeon. People start on the exit tile, and move according to the direction of the ten-sided die (same rules as in the first basic scenario). When they reach the number «7», the missing paladin is placed on the next tile. He has five wounds (only the sixth line of action is active), but from the moment he is discovered, the healing artifact begins to act and the paladin restores one wound each turn. People win if Redemar gets to the exit tile.

The party turned out to be very atmospheric. Lena, who played for the people, scouted the tunnels, fell into traps. I immediately brought in a demon that killed one of the mercenaries, but was successfully shot by another musket-wielding mercenary. The shabby people found their leader and led him to the exit under the constant pressure of the troglodytes. One of the brutes walked along with the paladin and took all his damage with the help of the “bodyguard” ability, because if the paladin received at least one wound, the effect of the artifact would stop (he would stop healing one wound at the beginning of each turn). Accordingly, the brutus very quickly found himself near death.

I brought in the second demon from the other side of the map and led him to a narrow passage through which the paladin had to go to get to the exit. I planned to block Redemar in this tunnel (I had a Battle Demon that had the «mighty» ability, blocking enemies on the same tile). The second Brutus went out to meet the demon in an attempt to delay him, but was too wounded and quickly fell under the pressure of the demon and the troglodytes. The demon and paladin entered the narrow tunnel at the same time, and the paladin was blocked in this passage just one step away from the escape route. He could leave the tunnel only by killing the demon, but there was little chance, because. the paladin had mostly defensive lines of action available, not offensive ones. And the Battle Demon had an attack value of as much as 4, and Redemar quickly began to lose lives.

But again, he was saved by a mercenary with a musket, who was on an adjacent tile. He, despite the troglodytes attacking him, neglected his defense and, having made the maximum possible attack rate, shot at the demon. And killed him! Killed the second demon in this game. Here is a quality musket caught! 🙂 Paladin made the last move and got out of the catacombs. The victory of people pulled out at the last moment.

Isla Dorada

The latest addition to our collection. We played one trial game for three. I liked it very much. An easy and fast family, but with an increased degree of conflict and a very fun process of “pulling the blanket”. Players move around the island as part of one expedition, and cannot disperse in different directions, but everyone needs to visit different locations, and some cannot be visited categorically.

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