Puerto rico rainfall: Climate of Puerto Rico | U.S. Geological Survey

Climate of Puerto Rico | U.S. Geological Survey

Climate of Puerto Rico

In general, the east-west trending Cordillera Central and Sierra de Cayey mountains form an insular hydrologic divide that separates the island of Puerto Rico into two climatologically distinct regions. The northern two-thirds of the island has a relatively humid climate whereas the southern one-third of the island is semi-arid.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1982) subdivided the island of Puerto Rico into six climate areas and designated a seventh climate area in the outlying islands (fig 1). Local climate variability within each subdivision and in the outlying islands is attributed to local differences in topographic relief and the effect of prevailing trade winds. Along the northern coast of Puerto Rico and in the outlying islands, prevailing trade winds are from the northeast. Along the southern coast of Puerto Rico, the east-west trending mountains affect wind patterns. In this area, the predominant wind direction is from the southeast during daylight hours, whereas prevailing winds are from the northeast during the period from midnight to early morning. Prevailing winds along the western end of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez differ from other areas on the island. Predominant winds in this area are from the west, which is nearly opposite to the prevailing northeast trade winds. Prevailing west winds are infrequent throughout other areas of the island. For example, in the San Juan area, west prevailing winds occur less than 3 percent of the time and generally are associated with the passing of cold fronts across the island.

Sources/Usage: Public Domain.

Climatic subdivisions of Puerto Rico and outlying islands.

Figure 1. Climatic subdivisions of Puerto Rico and outlying islands.

Mean monthly air temperatures in Puerto Rico and the outlying islands vary little throughout the year. Air temperatures generally are warmest during the month of August and coolest during the months of January and February. In coastal areas, annual air temperatures range from a mean maximum of 27 degrees Celsius (°C) to a mean minimum of 24 °C. In interior mountainous areas (that is, Eastern and Western Interior climate subdivisions; fig. 1), annual air temperatures range from a mean maximum of 25 °C to a mean minimum of 22 °C.

Air temperatures fluctuate little throughout the year as a result of relatively constant insolation (that is, solar radiation) and seawater temperatures. The rate of delivery of solar radiation is nearly constant because the difference in daylight hours varies little throughout the year. Between the longest day of the year (13 hours, 13 minutes) and the shortest day (11 hours, 2 minutes), the amount of daylight differs by only slightly more than 2 hours. Mean monthly seawater temperatures vary by only about 4 °C; the mean maximum water temperature of 28 °C occurs in October, and the mean minimum water temperature of 24 °C occurs in January.

The spatial distribution of rainfall in Puerto Rico is variable (fig. 2). Rainfall is greatest in the Sierra de Luquillo rainforest in the eastern part of Puerto Rico. The mean annual total rainfall in Sierra de Luquillo is 169.0 inches per year (in/yr) (4,305 millimeters per year (mm/yr). The least amount of rainfall occurs in the vicinity of Guánica at Ensenada in southwestern Puerto Rico. In this area, the mean annual total rainfall is 30.0 in/yr (768 mm/yr).

Figure 2. Distribution of mean annual precipitation in Puerto Rico

Pronounced orographic effects from the Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Cayey mountains in Puerto Rico result in high rainfall amounts occurring on the windward side of the mountains, which is north of the insular hydrologic divide. The opposite occurs south of the divide on the leeward side of the mountains, where coastal areas lie within a rain shadow resulting in lower rainfall amounts. Orographic effects on rainfall are not as pronounced in the outlying islands, with the exception of Vieques.

Rainfall on the island of Vieques differs substantially between the leeward or west side of the island and the windward or east side of the island. In general, rainfall occurs more frequently on the west side of Vieques. Although rainfall data are insufficient to quantify amounts, estimates indicate that the difference in rainfall between the east and west ends of the island could be as much as 13.6 in/yr (345 mm/yr). Rainfall in the eastern part of the island may be similar to that of the island of Culebra where the mean annual total rainfall is 36.4 in/yr (925 mm/yr). The mean annual total rainfall in the western part of Vieques, at Playa Grande and Resolución, is 50.0 in/yr (1,270 mm/yr). The mean annual total rainfall on the island of Mona is 36.0 in/yr (915 mm/yr).

Although rainfall data are limited, certain vegetation adapted for life with a limited water supply (such as xerophytes) serve as strong indicators about rainfall distributions on Vieques. The growth of xerophytes is prevalent on the east side of the island where rainfall is limited as opposed to the west side of the island where rainfall is more abundant.

Major rainfall events producing substantial volumes of rain in Puerto Rico and the outlying islands are caused by one of two climate mechanisms—the passage of an easterly wave or the passage of a cold front. Easterly waves generally occur during May to November with some having sufficient intensity to evolve into tropical storms and (or) hurricanes. Cold fronts generally occur during November to April and may produce sufficient rainfall to cause flooding even during the period from December to March, which is a relatively dry period. The number of easterly waves or cold fronts passing over the region in any given year ultimately determines whether the region experiences relatively dry conditions or wet conditions. As a result, localized droughts occur yearly within many of the geographic areas of Puerto Rico.

Sources/Usage: Public Domain.

Distribution of mean annual precipitation in Puerto Rico

Figure 2. Distribution of mean annual precipitation in Puerto Rico

Pronounced orographic effects from the Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Cayey mountains in Puerto Rico result in high rainfall amounts occurring on the windward side of the mountains, which is north of the insular hydrologic divide. The opposite occurs south of the divide on the leeward side of the mountains, where coastal areas lie within a rain shadow resulting in lower rainfall amounts. Orographic effects on rainfall are not as pronounced in the outlying islands, with the exception of Vieques.

Rainfall on the island of Vieques differs substantially between the leeward or west side of the island and the windward or east side of the island. In general, rainfall occurs more frequently on the west side of Vieques. Although rainfall data are insufficient to quantify amounts, estimates indicate that the difference in rainfall between the east and west ends of the island could be as much as 13.6 in/yr (345 mm/yr). Rainfall in the eastern part of the island may be similar to that of the island of Culebra where the mean annual total rainfall is 36.4 in/yr (925 mm/yr). The mean annual total rainfall in the western part of Vieques, at Playa Grande and Resolución, is 50.0 in/yr (1,270 mm/yr). The mean annual total rainfall on the island of Mona is 36. 0 in/yr (915 mm/yr).

Although rainfall data are limited, certain vegetation adapted for life with a limited water supply (such as xerophytes) serve as strong indicators about rainfall distributions on Vieques. The growth of xerophytes is prevalent on the east side of the island where rainfall is limited as opposed to the west side of the island where rainfall is more abundant.

Major rainfall events producing substantial volumes of rain in Puerto Rico and the outlying islands are caused by one of two climate mechanisms—the passage of an easterly wave or the passage of a cold front. Easterly waves generally occur during May to November with some having sufficient intensity to evolve into tropical storms and (or) hurricanes. Cold fronts generally occur during November to April and may produce sufficient rainfall to cause flooding even during the period from December to March, which is a relatively dry period. The number of easterly waves or cold fronts passing over the region in any given year ultimately determines whether the region experiences relatively dry conditions or wet conditions. As a result, localized droughts occur yearly within many of the geographic areas of Puerto Rico.

References

Hydrogeology of Puerto Rico and the Outlying Islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona

Puerto Rico climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Puerto Rico water temperature

Puerto Rico are in the middle and the summers are that easy to define.

The best time to visit are January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.

The month with the highest relative humidity is May (85.31 %). The month with the lowest relative humidity is November (80.03 %).

The month with the highest number of rainy days is March (18.93 days). The month with the lowest number of rainy days is August (3.23 days).

  • >>Weather by month // weather averages Puerto Rico
  • >>Climate graph // Weather by Month Puerto Rico
  • >>average temperature Puerto Rico
  • >>Weather Puerto Rico
  • >>Water temperature Puerto Rico

This city has a tropical climate. The summers are much rainier than the winters in Puerto Rico. The climate here is classified as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger system. The average annual temperature in Puerto Rico is 23.0 °C | 73.3 °F. The annual rainfall is 795 mm | 31.3 inch.


Climate graph // Weather by Month Puerto Rico

The least amount of rainfall occurs in August. The average in this month is 15 mm | 0.6 inch. The greatest amount of precipitation occurs in February, with an average of 161 mm | 6.3 inch.

average temperature Puerto Rico

The temperatures are highest on average in March, at around 24.9 °C | 76.8 °F. The lowest average temperatures in the year occur in September, when it is around 21.5 °C | 70.7 °F.




Weather by month // weather averages Puerto Rico

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  Avg. Temperature °C (°F) Min. Temperature °C (°F) Max. Temperature °C (°F) Precipitation / Rainfall mm (in) Humidity (%) Rainy days (d) avg. Sun hours (hours)
January

24.1

(75.4)

22.6

(72.6)

26.8

(80.2)

108

(4.3)

82&percnt; 10 6.0
February

24.7

(76.4)

23.2

(73.7)

27

(80.5)

161

(6.3)

84&percnt; 14 7.0
March

24.9

(76.8)

23.3

(73.9)

27.3

(81.1)

155

(6.1)

84&percnt; 14 7.0
April

24.5

(76.1)

22.9

(73.3)

27

(80.5)

117

(4. 6)

85&percnt; 12 6.0
May

23.6

(74.4)

22.2

(72)

26

(78.8)

70

(2.8)

85&percnt; 10 4.0
June

22.4

(72.3)

21

(69.8)

25

(77)

35

(1.4)

84&percnt; 6 3.0
July

21.8

(71.2)

20.4

(68.6)

24.7

(76.4)

25

(1)

83&percnt; 4 2.0
August

21.5

(70.7)

19.9

(67.8)

24.8

(76.6)

15

(0.6)

82&percnt; 2 2.0
September

21.5

(70.7)

19.8

(67. 6)

24.9

(76.9)

25

(1)

82&percnt; 4 3.0
October

21.6

(70.9)

20

(68)

25

(77)

19

(0.7)

81&percnt; 3 2.0
November

22.1

(71.7)

20.3

(68.5)

25.6

(78.1)

20

(0.8)

80&percnt; 3 3.0
December

23.1

(73.5)

21.3

(70.4)

26.3

(79.4)

45

(1.8)

81&percnt; 5 5.0
  January February March April May June July August September October November December
Avg. Temperature °C (°F)

24.1 °C

(75.4) °F

24.7 °C

(76.4) °F

24.9 °C

(76.8) °F

24.5 °C

(76.1) °F

23.6 °C

(74.4) °F

22.4 °C

(72.3) °F

21.8 °C

(71.2) °F

21.5 °C

(70.7) °F

21.5 °C

(70.7) °F

21.6 °C

(70.9) °F

22.1 °C

(71.7) °F

23.1 °C

(73.5) °F

Min. Temperature °C (°F)

22.6 °C

(72.6) °F

23.2 °C

(73.7) °F

23.3 °C

(73.9) °F

22.9 °C

(73.3) °F

22.2 °C

(72) °F

21 °C

(69.8) °F

20.4 °C

(68.6) °F

19.9 °C

(67.8) °F

19.8 °C

(67.6) °F

20 °C

(68) °F

20. 3 °C

(68.5) °F

21.3 °C

(70.4) °F

Max. Temperature °C (°F)

26.8 °C

(80.2) °F

27 °C

(80.5) °F

27.3 °C

(81.1) °F

27 °C

(80.5) °F

26 °C

(78.8) °F

25 °C

(77) °F

24.7 °C

(76.4) °F

24.8 °C

(76.6) °F

24.9 °C

(76.9) °F

25 °C

(77) °F

25.6 °C

(78.1) °F

26.3 °C

(79.4) °F

Precipitation / Rainfall mm (in)

108

(4)

161

(6)

155

(6)

117

(4)

70

(2)

35

(1)

25

(0)

15

(0)

25

(0)

19

(0)

20

(0)

45

(1)

Humidity(%) 82&percnt; 84&percnt; 84&percnt; 85&percnt; 85&percnt; 84&percnt; 83&percnt; 82&percnt; 82&percnt; 81&percnt; 80&percnt; 81&percnt;
Rainy days (d) 10 14 14 12 10 6 4 2 4 3 3 5
avg. Sun hours (hours) 6.1 6.7 7.0 6.4 3.9 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.3 3.0 4.7

Data: 1991 — 2021 Min. Temperature °C (°F), Max. Temperature °C (°F), Precipitation / Rainfall mm (in), Humidity, Rainy days.
Data: 1999 — 2019: avg. Sun hours

The variation in the precipitation between the driest and wettest months is 146 mm | 6 inch. The variation in temperatures throughout the year is 3.4 °C | 6.2 °F.

Puerto Rico weather and climate for every month

Puerto Rico in January

Puerto Rico in February

Puerto Rico in March

Puerto Rico in April

Puerto Rico in May

Puerto Rico in June

Puerto Rico in July

Puerto Rico in August

Puerto Rico in September

Puerto Rico in October

Puerto Rico in November

Puerto Rico in December

Hours of sunshine in Puerto Rico

  • avg. hours of sun
  • Total hours of sun

In Puerto Rico, the month with the most daily hours of sunshine is March with an average of 7.03 hours of sunshine. In total there are 217.82 hours of sunshine throughout March.

The month with the fewest daily hours of sunshine in Puerto Rico is January with an average of 2.29 hours of sunshine a day. In total there are 71.13 hours of sunshine in January.

Around 1524.62 hours of sunshine are counted in Puerto Rico throughout the year. On average there are 50.3 hours of sunshine per month.

Water temperature Puerto Rico(Pacific Ocean)

  Max. Water temperature °C (°F) Avg. Water Temperature °C (°F) Min. Water Temperature °C (°F)
January

25.6

78.1

25.3

77.5

24.8

76.6

February

26.1

79

25. 9

78.6

25.5

77.9

March

26.2

79.2

25.9

78.6

25.6

78.1

April

25.7

78.3

25.4

77.7

25.1

77.2

May

25.6

78.1

25.1

77.2

24.6

76.3

June

24.5

76.1

24

75.2

23.4

74.1

July

23.8

74.8

23.5

74.3

23.1

73.6

August

23.3

73.9

22.9

73.2

22.6

72.7

September

23.3

73.9

22.8

73

22.3

72.1

October

23.4

74. 1

23.1

73.6

22.8

73

November

23.6

74.5

23.3

73.9

22.8

73

December

24.8

76.6

24.2

75.6

23.5

74.3

  January February March April May June July August September October November December
Min. Water Temperature °C (°F)

24.8

76.6

25.5

77.9

25.6

78.1

25.1

77.2

24.6

76.3

23.4

74.1

23.1

73.6

22.6

72.7

22.3

72.1

22.8

73

22. 8

73

23.5

74.3

Avg. Water Temperature °C (°F)

25.3

77.5

25.9

78.6

25.9

78.6

25.4

77.7

25.1

77.2

24

75.2

23.5

74.3

22.9

73.2

22.8

73

23.1

73.6

23.3

73.9

24.2

75.6

Max. Water temperature °C (°F)

25.6

78.1

26.1

79

26.2

79.2

25.7

78.3

25.6

78.1

24.5

76.1

23.8

74.8

23.3

73.9

23.3

73.9

23.4

74.1

23.6

74.5

24.8

76.6

The water temperature in Puerto Rico (Pacific Ocean) is on an annual average at about 24. 30°C | 75.74°F.

In March, the highest water temperature is reached with a monthly average of 26.20°C | 79.16°F. Whereas in September the lowest average water temperatures are expected with about 22.30°C | 72.14°F.

The lowest water temperatures are seen around the year around September 10 at 22.30°C | 72.14°F. The average highest water temperatures are around 26.20°C | 79.16°F and are measured around March 10.

The closest water of Puerto Rico is Pacific Ocean.

Airport close to Puerto Rico

The closest Airports of Puerto Rico are: Eloy Alfaro International Airport (MEC) 77.62km,José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport (GYE) 119.80km,Mariscal Lamar International Airport (CUE) 247.85km

You can reach Puerto Rico from this Cities by Plane: Santiago (SCL), Quito (UIO), Lima (LIM), New York (JFK), Miami (MIA), Torrejón de Ardoz (MAD), Guayaquil (GYE), Cali (CLO), Bogota (BOG), Caracas (CCS), Santa Clara (SAL), CUENCA (CUE)

Weather in Puerto Rico today ⋆ Weather forecast Puerto Rico now ⇒ Puerto Rico, Colombia

Weather in Puerto Rico today ⋆ Weather forecast Puerto Rico now ⇒ Puerto Rico, Colombia | METEOPROG

Colombia, Caqueta

Now in Puerto Rico

Feels +28°C

Hot

Overcast, light rain

Chance of precipitation 90 %
Wind 1 m/s
Pressure 728
UV index 5/12
Humidity 85 %
Rainfall 0. 23 mm

Weather forecast updated at 21:25 © Meteoprog.com

Today

December 2

+21 ° C

+30 ° C

Tomorrow

+20 ° C

9000 9000 9000

+30 ° C

0 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9

Sunday

December 4

+21°C 9Monday

December 5
A week

  • At night
  • +21°C
  • Feels like

    +23°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 93%

  • 729 mm

  • 0. 6 mm

  • In the morning
  • +22°C
  • Feels like

    +24°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 92%

  • 728 mm

  • 0 mm

  • Daytime
  • +30°C
  • Feels like

    +32°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 71%

  • 730 mm

  • 0. 4 mm

  • Evening
  • +28°C
  • Feels like

    +30°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 73%

  • 728 mm

  • 1. 9 mm

  • At night
  • +20°C
  • Feels like

    +21°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 91%

  • 730 mm

  • 0. 2 mm

  • In the morning
  • +22°C
  • Feels like

    +24°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 87%

  • 730 mm

  • Ø mm

  • Daytime
  • +30°C
  • Feels like

    +32°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 69%

  • 731 mm

  • 0. 6 mm

  • Evening
  • +27°C
  • Feels like

    +29°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 74%

  • 729 mm

  • 3. 3 mm

  • At night
  • +21°C
  • Feels like

    +23°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 93%

  • 730 mm

  • 1. 4 mm

  • In the morning
  • +21°C
  • Feels like

    +23°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 96%

  • 730 mm

  • 3. 3 mm

  • Daytime
  • +30°C
  • Feels like

    +32°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 77%

  • 731 mm

  • 0. 4 mm

  • Evening
  • +27°C
  • Feels like

    +29°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 73%

  • 728 mm

  • 1. 9 mm

  • At night
  • +21°C
  • Feels like

    +23°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 95%

  • 729 mm

  • 7. 4 mm

  • In the morning
  • +21°C
  • Feels like

    +23°C
  • 2 m/s

  • 97%

  • 729 mm

  • 6. 2 mm

  • Daytime
  • +29°C
  • Feels like

    +31°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 80%

  • 730 mm

  • 1. 7 mm

  • Evening
  • +26°C
  • Feels like

    +28°C
  • 1 m/s

  • 86%

  • 729 mm

  • 9. 1 mm

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Puerto Rico: reference information

The maximum air temperature recorded in Puerto Rico for the last 73 years of observations is +33.6°C, recorded on December 2, 1998 years.

The absolute minimum of +20.5°C was recorded in 2022. The average temperature for this day is +27.9°C.

The heaviest rainfall in Puerto Rico was recorded on December 2, 2015 — 28. 72 mm. The maximum wind gusts were in 2014 — up to 12.73 m/s.

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Weather in other regions

Bogotá

+12°

Medellin

+17°

Cali

+21°

Manaus

+25°

Barranquilla

+27°

Cartagena

+27°

Soacha

+13°

Kukuta

+24°

Bucaramanga

+21°

Soledad

+27°

Ibags

+21°

Villavicencio

+24°

Ibags

+21°

Santa Marta

+25°

Pereira

+19°

Bello

+19°

Valledupar

+27°

Monteria

+27°

Pasto

+11°

Manizales

+17°

All cities

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    Tropical trade winds, warm and very even. The average monthly temperature fluctuates slightly throughout the year — from +22-24 C in winter to +28-29 C in summer. Diurnal temperature changes are also weak, but in mountainous areas it can be cool at night. The temperature in the southern regions is usually somewhat warmer than in the north, and in the central mountainous municipalities it is always noticeably cooler than on the coast.

    Precipitation varies from 800 to 2500 mm per year, and its distribution is rather uneven — the areas around the El Yunque peak receive up to 2000 mm of rain per year, while the southwestern regions — no more than 850 mm.

    Hurricanes are so common in Puerto Rico that the English word «hurricane» itself is believed to be derived from the name of the evil god in Taino mythology, Huracan. Powerful atmospheric whirlwinds roll over the territory of the country from May to November. The weather during this period is quite hot, very humid and windy (wind speed on the periphery of the typhoon can reach 150 km\134h).

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