Zona maritimo terrestre definicion: ¿Qué es la Zona Federal Marítimo Terrestre? | Procuraduria Federal de Proteccion al Ambiente | Gobierno

¿Qué es la Zona Federal Marítimo Terrestre? | Procuraduria Federal de Proteccion al Ambiente | Gobierno

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La ZOFEMAT se determina únicamente en áreas que en un plano horizontal presenten un ángulo de inclinación de 30 grados o menos. (art. 4° del Reglamento para el uso y aprovechamiento.

.. de la ZOFEMAT…).

Procuraduria Federal de Proteccion al Ambiente |
12 de agosto de 2016

Vista panorámica de la Zofemat.

La Zona Federal Marítimo Terrestre es la franja de veinte metros de ancho de tierra firme, transitable y contigua a la playa.

Ahora bien, para poder entenderlo mejor debemos saber que la playa son las partes de tierra que por efecto de la marea cubre y descubre el agua. (art. 7° fracción IV de la Ley General de Bienes Nacionales).

Así mismo, cuando la costa carece de playas y presenta formaciones rocosas o acantilados, la Secretaría determinará la zona federal marítimo terrestre dentro de una faja de 20 metros contigua al litoral marino, únicamente cuando la inclinacion en dicha faja sea de 30 grados o menor en forma continua. (art. 4° del Reglamento para el uso y aprovechamiento… de la ZOFEMAT…).

La verificación del uso, aprovechamiento y explotación de la ZOFEMAT, playas marítimas y terrenos ganados al mar, administrados por la Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), es atribución de la PROFEPA y resulta estratégica por la gran extensión de litorales con que cuenta el país, así como por la riqueza de sus recursos naturales y la importancia de los ecosistemas que alberga.

A continuación se representa el perfil de la costa cuando existe zona federal marítimo terrestre.

 

Por otra parte, también es importante saber qué es un terreno ganado al mar, ya que la verificación del uso que se de a este tambien es competencia de la PROFEPA. Es así que se trata de la superficie de tierra comprendida entre el límite de la nueva Zona Federal Marítimo Terrestre y el límite de la Zona Federal Marítimo Terrestre original, de conformidad con el artículo 125 de la Ley General de Bienes Nacionales. (NOM-146-SEMARNAT-2005)


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La zona marítimo terrestre es uno de los bienes de dominio público que encontramos en las costas. La Ley de Muelles y Puertos de 1968 define la zona marítimo terrestre como: “el espacio de las costas de Puerto Rico que baña el mar en su flujo y reflujo, en donde son sensibles las mareas, y las mayores olas en los temporales en donde las mareas no son sensibles”. Según esta ley, la zona marítimo terrestre incluye los terrenos ganados al mar y los márgenes de los ríos hasta donde sean navegables o se hagan sensibles las mareas.

 

Como todos los bienes públicos de uso público, la zona marítimo terrestre nos pertenece a todas las personas. Estos bienes no son ni pueden ser privados; no se pueden vender, comprar, usucapir o embargar.  

 

¿Cómo se identifica la zona marítimo terrestre?


El Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA) es la agencia responsable de conservar y vigilar la zona marítimo terrestre. Entre sus funciones, el DRNA es la única entidad autorizada a establecer el punto hasta el que llegan los bienes públicos. Esto se hace a través de un proceso llamado deslinde. El Reglamento 4860 del Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico regula lo relativo al deslinde.

 

¿Qué pasa con los terrenos que colindan con la zona marítimo terrestre?


Los terrenos que colindan con la zona marítimo terrestre pueden ser privados. Sin embargo, la Ley de Muelles y Puertos impone sobre esos terrenos privados dos cargas o servidumbres.

 

Una servidumbre es un derecho que una finca tiene sobre otra. En este caso, las servidumbres consisten en dejar libre una franja de terreno paralela a la zona marítimo terrestre. La primera, la servidumbre de vigilancia, consiste en una franja de terreno de 6 metros de ancho. La segunda, servidumbre de salvamento, consiste en una franja de 20 metros de ancho desde la zona marítimo terrestre, que incluye la servidumbre de vigilancia. 

 

El reglamento conjunto de permisos de la Junta de Planificación exige que en todo proyecto para la construcción de edificios, de segregación o de urbanización de terrenos, esos primeros 20 metros se dediquen a uso público. Además, en los 30 metros después de la servidumbre de salvamento, el reglamento establece una zona de separación en la que prohíbe la construcción de estructuras permanentes. Como resultado, no debe haber ninguna estructura permanente en los primeros 50 metros tierra adentro desde la zona marítimo terrestre.  

 

 

 

¿Se pueden hacer excepciones?


El DRNA puede permitir el uso y ocupación de la zona marítimo terrestre y/o de las servidumbres, pero no puede convertirlas en bienes privados.  

 

Mediante el proceso de autorización, el DRNA permite actividades temporales que no incluyen la construcción de obras permanentes en el área. Se pueden colocar estructuras removibles, pero no en la servidumbre de vigilancia. Esto ocurre, por ejemplo, para  festivales playeros en los que se colocan tarimas. 

 

Si el uso no es temporero, el DRNA puede autorizar una concesión, pero únicamente para usos que sean dependientes del agua. Usos dependientes del agua son usos que no podrían ocurrir en otro lugar que no sea la zona marítimo terrestre y/o sus servidumbres, por ejemplo la construcción y uso de muelles, malecones o villas pesqueras. 

 

 

RF LC Article 90. Transport lands \ ConsultantPlus

RF LC Article 90. Transport lands

, air, pipeline and other modes of transport and the rights to which have arisen among the participants in land relations on the grounds provided for by this Code, federal laws and laws of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. nine0003

(as amended by Federal Law No. 342-FZ of August 3, 2018)

(see the text in the previous edition)

) placement of railway tracks;

2) placement, operation and reconstruction of buildings, structures, including railway stations, railway stations, as well as devices and other objects necessary for the operation, maintenance, construction, reconstruction, repair of ground and underground buildings, structures, devices and other railway transport facilities; nine0003

(as amended by Federal Laws No. 215-FZ of 18.07.2011, No. 171-FZ of 23.06.2014)

(see the text in the previous edition)

3) establishment of right of way.

(as amended by Federal Law No. 342-FZ of August 3, 2018)

(see the text in the previous edition)

Vacant land plots on railway right of way within the boundaries of railway transport land can be leased to citizens and legal entities for agricultural use, provision of services to passengers, warehousing of goods, arrangement of loading and unloading areas, construction of railroad warehouses (with the exception of fuel and lubricants warehouses and gas stations of any type, as well as warehouses intended for the storage of hazardous substances and materials) and other purposes when subject to compliance with traffic safety requirements established by federal laws. nine0003

The procedure for the establishment and use of railway right of way is determined by the Government of the Russian Federation.

(as amended by Federal Law No. 342-FZ of August 3, 2018)

(see the text in the previous edition)

2) placement of road service facilities, facilities intended for the implementation of road activities, stationary posts of internal affairs bodies; nine0003

3) establishment of right-of-ways for motor roads.

(clause 3 as amended by Federal Law No. 257-FZ of 08.11.2007)

(see the text in the previous edition)

3.1. Land plots within the boundaries of the right of way of motor roads may be provided in accordance with the procedure established by this Code to citizens and legal entities for the placement of road service facilities. To create the necessary conditions for the use of roads and their safety, to ensure compliance with traffic safety requirements and to ensure the safety of citizens, roadside lanes are created. The establishment of the boundaries of the right of way of motor roads and the boundaries of roadside lanes of motor roads, the use of such right of way and roadside lanes shall be carried out in accordance with this Code, the legislation of the Russian Federation on motor roads and road activities. nine0003

(Clause 3.1 was introduced by Federal Law No. 257-FZ of November 8, 2007; as amended by Federal Law No. 342-FZ of August 3, 2018)

(See the text in the previous version)

organizations and operation of marine and inland water transport facilities, land plots may be provided for:

1) placement of artificially created inland waterways;

transport; nine0003

(as amended by Federal Laws No. 215-FZ of 18.07.2011, No. 171-FZ of 23.06.2014, No. 177-FZ of 18.07.2017)

(see the text in the previous edition)

3) allocations coastline.

The coastline of inland waterways is allocated for work related to navigation and rafting on inland waterways, outside the territories of settlements. The procedure for allocating the coastline and using it is determined by the Code of Inland Water Transport of the Russian Federation. nine0003

(as amended by the Federal Law of December 18, 2006 N 232-FZ)

(see the text in the previous edition)

, air terminals, runways, other ground facilities necessary for the operation, maintenance, construction, reconstruction, repair of ground and underground buildings, structures, devices and other air transport facilities. nine0003

(as amended by Federal Laws No. 215-FZ of 18.07.2011, No. 171-FZ of 23.06.2014)

(see the text in the previous edition)

other pipelines, linear facilities of the gas supply system, their integral technological parts, in the cases and in the manner provided for by this Code, land plots that are state or municipal property may be provided, easements or public easements may be established, land or land plots may be used without their provision and establishing an easement, a public easement. nine0003

(Clause 6 as amended by Federal Law No. 284-FZ of July 14, 2022)

(see the text in the previous edition)

and other modes of transport, land is reserved. The procedure for reserving land for these purposes is established by federal laws.

8. Land plots provided for the construction, reconstruction, overhaul of pipeline transport facilities from other categories of land are not subject to transfer to the category of transport land and are provided for the period of construction, reconstruction, overhaul of such facilities. For land plots where underground pipeline transport facilities related to linear facilities are located, registration of the rights of owners of pipeline transport facilities in the manner prescribed by this Code is not required. The owners of land plots have restrictions on their rights in connection with the establishment of security zones for such objects. nine0003

(Clause 8 was introduced by Federal Law No. 257-FZ of July 21, 2011, as amended by Federal Law No. 171-FZ of June 23, 2014)

(See the text in the previous edition)

drones appeared on the shelf. Unidentified

4 min

Such a number of UAVs on the Norwegian shelf looks strange, as if someone is looking for something.

Stavanger, September 27 — Neftegaz. RU news agency. The Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) on Monday, September 26, 2022 announced the problem of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) seen in the North and Norwegian Seas. nine0105
It turned out that the problem exists, but they just wrote about it.

Stavanger Aftenblad, a privately owned newspaper majority-owned by foreigners, published a boldly titled story: Drones could be used to directly strike offshore oil platforms, the Norwegian Oil Security Authority warns.
Of concern is the multitude of unidentified UAVs that are observed in the immediate vicinity of the MP. There are consultations with oil producing companies on security issues. nine0003

In conditions of hysteria against Russia, this article made a lot of noise in the West.
Indeed:

  • at least 6 sightings of unidentified drones were recorded in Equinor’s Norwegian offshore platform (MP) security zone on the Norwegian continental shelf;
  • September 17, 2022 — 2 UAVs were seen near the Kristin field in the Norwegian Sea and at the Gina Krog oil and gas field in the North; nine0116
  • September 20 — 1 UAV was seen less than 50 meters from the Heidrun MP in the Norwegian Sea, violating the security zone;
  • earlier this week, an unidentified flying object cruised near the Ringhorn MP platform in the North Sea;
  • no one announced the identity of the drones and the purpose of the patrol.

On September 26, 2022, the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) urged oil companies to be more vigilant about unidentified UAVs seen near Norwegian MP oil and gas production platforms, warning that drones could pose a risk of accidents or deliberate attacks:

  • call for increased vigilance,
  • revision of emergency preparedness measures,
  • Incident Response,
  • information exchange.

Unidentified UAVs / aircraft may pose an increased risk in such cases:

  • movement of helicopters carrying shift workers and movement of SAR rescue helicopters;
  • UAV movement near areas that present a risk of explosion; nine0116
  • accidental UAV crash on MP;
  • deliberate attacks.

In accordance with § 58 Warning and notification in connection with entering security zones, the PSA must receive warnings and notifications when entering such zones:

  • the operator must:
    • warn a vessel (or other object) that is in the process of entering a safety zone when it is not allowed to enter such a zone,
    • nine0115 to warn ships outside the security zone if the ships may pose a safety hazard to oil activities;

    • alert the party responsible for the facility, if possible, in the event of a possible safety hazard to petroleum activities;
    • alert the Joint Rescue Coordination Center and PSA Norway in the event of the above situations;
    • Report breaches of security zones to the appropriate police authorities and PSA in accordance with established procedures. nine0116
  • security zone:
    • is a geographically restricted area in which unauthorized ships or aircraft are prohibited or restricted from staying, transiting or operating,
    • all MPs on the NCS are surrounded by a security zone:
      • usually — 500 meters from the object and from the seabed,
      • up to 500 meters above the highest point of the facility,
    • violation of the security zone may be punishable by law. nine0116

Eskil Eriksen, spokesman for Equinor, said:

  • As far as security is concerned, we don’t want to release details about the measures or which installations were monitoring unidentified drones;
  • at some of our facilities we observed unidentified drones;
  • we take these incidents seriously and report the sightings to the Norwegian authorities, PSA and police;
  • we are in dialogue with the authorities who monitor the sightings. nine0116

The Sør-West police district of Norway stated:

  • an investigation has been launched into the discovery of a UAV at sea;
  • notified the Norwegian Police Security Service, which deals with terrorism and external threats;
  • Police take sightings of illegal UAV activity seriously and are closely monitoring the situation

A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle that can be remotely controlled or flown autonomously using software, sensors, and GPS. nine0105
Drones come in all sizes, from small private-use UAVs to aircraft with a wingspan of 40 meters.
The special operation of the Russian Federation radically changed the attitude towards UAVs:

    • provided vital intelligence,
    • were excellent spotters of fire and even sea-based missiles,
    • were kamikaze drones;
    • nine0126

    • just now, information encouraging for the RF Armed Forces about the successful use of the Geran 2 UAV (see for September 26, 2022) with Iranian roots has appeared from the front;
    • UAV is such a serious force that it can determine the course of the battle.

    Obviously, the Norwegian authorities do not live in a vacuum and are well aware of the merits and capabilities of drones.
    Such a number of UAVs on the Norwegian shelf looks strange, as if someone is looking for something. nine0105
    Speaking conspiratorially, these can be:

    • shooting for some informational and entertainment purposes, etc.;
    • this could be a hobby UAV for a crew member or support vessel;
    • fishing boats may use drones to search for schools of fish;
    • , of course, it can be assumed that the drones perform a sabotage and reconnaissance function, but during the day and in full view of several MP crews, this looks ridiculous, not comme il faut; nine0116
    • however, it doesn’t look like amateurs are flying the loitering drones, as it’s not easy in such conditions.

    We can definitely say that if the task of finding a transmitter for controlling the drone is set, then such a task can be solved by the available technical means.

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