Jose campeche biography: José Campeche y Jordán | Smithsonian American Art Museum

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Puerto Rico Endowment for the Humanities Pays Tribute to José Campeche | Lifestyle

The Puerto Rico Endowment for the Humanities (FPH) will pay tribute to the figure of the great Puerto Rican painter José Campeche by inaugurating the series of activities El San Juan de Campeche.

The cultural program will begin with the keynote address ‘En un país reciente: El Campeche de Tapia,’ which will be imparted by the renowned writer and researcher Marta Aponte Alsina next Thursday, Aug. 19, at the Raúl Juliá Theater of the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico (MAPR).

The activity will begin at 5:30 p.m. with a welcome cocktail, which will lead to the keynote address at 6:30 p.m. To confirm their attendance, those interested should contact Wanda Figueroa, of the FPH, at 787-721-2087 or write to [email protected]. A negative COVID test or vaccination evidence is required to enter the event.

The cultural program El San Juan de Campeche is a FPH project conceived as a prelude to the launch of the posthumous book by Dr. Arturo Dávila, entitled José Campeche and his family. This project pays tribute to the figure of Campeche and to the memory of Dávila, who was one of its most dedicated and emblematic researchers. El San Juan de Campeche initiatives include conferences; the production of a series of mini-documentaries and podcasts; and a program of workshops for young people and children centered on the figure of painter José Campeche.

Margarita Benítez, executive director of the FPH, explained that the Flamboyán Arts Fund has been the main sponsor of this public program and thanks to its determined support, it has been possible to produce the series of talks, workshops and educational activities focused on Campeche.

To make the publication of Dávila’s work possible and promote its dissemination, the FPH has worked in partnership with the Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica and the Fonalledas Foundation, which made a generous donation for the book. Likewise, the presentation of the series’ inaugural talk at the Raúl Juliá Theater will be carried out thanks to the support of the MAPR’s Artist Assistance Program (PROA).

“We are deeply grateful to all our collaborators and sponsors for the support received to bring our people this beautiful public program where the humanities and the arts meet,» said Benítez. “We are also honored to have the distinguished writer Marta Aponte Alsina for the inaugural conference of the series. Many of her fiction works are nourished by historical themes investigated with great rigor by the author, being then subjected to her personal critical and creative vision. We await with great expectation the look on Campeche and its time that Aponte will offer us from the reading of the biography written by Alejandro Tapia y Rivera and the book by Arturo Dávila.”

The writer Marta Aponte Alsina expressed that her conference will focus on “the biography of Campeche written by Alejandro Tapia y Rivera. The book was published in San Juan, in 1855, when some older people still remembered José Campeche, or had heard anecdotes about the painter. The ‘Vida del pintor puertorriqueño José Campeche’ was, it occurs to me, the first biography written about a Caribbean artist descended from slaves, who was also one of the great Latin American painters of the 18th century. Despite the political circumstances that befell him, the wonderful Tapia enriched the cultural legacy that we celebrate with more intensity than ever in these difficult times.

Aponte Alsina is a renowned author of novels, short stories, and essays. Her books El sexto sueño (novel), La muerte feliz de William Carlos Williams (novel), Somos islas (essays), among many others, have earned her the recognition of critics and the support of Puerto Rican and foreign publishers. More recently, her book PR 3 Aguirre, which alternates between the documentary and the imaginative, has also captured the interest of the public.

Benítez added that this project, coordinated and managed by FPH program officers Sonya Canetti and Suheily Chaparro, had the valuable collaboration of Dr. Teresa Tió, who has been key in the design of the contents of the program.

Tió said that “José Campeche, our first great painter, is the focus of the various views of the El San Juan de Campeche project. Through the artist, his biographer Alejandro Tapia and professor Arturo Dávila, and the contributions of each of the project’s collaborators, we will see various aspects of his life and his city, his family, his condition as an Afro-descendant, his profound religiosity, and the society that he lived and marked forever and for us. We are going to discover, with Campeche as a witness, the San Juan of the 18th century. At the 500th anniversary of its foundation, San Juan celebrates it with Campeche.”

The FPH will soon offer more details on the full schedule for El San Juan de Campeche and the publication of the book.

Walled city on the Yucatan Peninsula, March 20, 2011 (29 photos — Campeche, Mexico)


Campeche >
City-fortress on the Yucatan Peninsula, March 20, 2011 (29 Photos)

Author: Anna_08

Campeche is a city on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico on the Yucatan peninsula. The Spanish settlement of Campeche was built on the site of a Mayan fishing village around 1540. During the colonial period, this major Yucatán port exported vast amounts of timber to Europe. Prosperous Campeche was often attacked by pirates. All the famous pirates were marked by raids on the port: Francis Drake and John Hawkings, Henry Morgan and many others.

The biggest raid was made in 1663, when many inhabitants of the city were killed. As a result, thick walls were erected around the city. They were fortified with eight bastions, which have been preserved and seven are open to the public. This is the entrance to the city behind the fortress wall from the land side.

Walls, fortresses and bastions protected the city from the constant attacks of pirates in the 17th and 18th centuries. Thanks to these historical monuments, as well as several other buildings of the historic city center, this place was declared by UNESCO in 2002 as a Patrimony of Humanity.

It’s already evening, everything is closed, the streets are empty, there are no tourists. Therefore, houses are clearly visible. With their outward simplicity — what wonderful tones!

This is street number 59, which runs between the gates from the sea side and from the land side. Ahead are the gates from the sea.

This street is lined with restored colonial houses.

We came to the main square of the city of Parque Principal.

The square is surrounded by elegant arcades, in the center there is a modern stage for the orchestra.

In the northern corner of the square stands the Cathedral, one of the first baroque temples built in the Yucatan.


Monument to a worker whose specialty we could not determine.

View of the bell tower from the courtyard of the cathedral.


Beautiful building with arcades.


Fortress wall. The monument — an eagle pecking a snake, symbolizes the struggle between good and evil.

And this is the wall of the hotel. Does one of the portraits remind you of anyone?

And this is on the other wall.

Gulf of Mexico waterfront.

Monument on the embankment.

And this is a fisherman.

The building on the square is the former City Hall, now a library.

Cathedral in the morning sun.

Tourists are taken in these trailers for a walk around the city.

Former Church of San José, now a cultural center.

1846 building, state government offices.


And this is the Gulf of Mexico. Near the sports club.


The length of the embankment is 3.5 km.

Publication date: 03.05.11


04.05.11 04:54:12

How good the streets and architecture in general are! Thank you, Anna, for the pleasant moments of viewing! And when will there be such embankments in Nizhnevartovsk?


04.05.11 07:31:17

it’s beautiful, only there seems to be little greenery on the streets. The man in the hat on the wall of the house looks like Yeltsin :)))


04.05.11 12:34:29

We also have a nice embankment, look at my photos. That’s the only problem with palm trees 🙂


05/22/11 08:38:38

All old buildings are repaired and preserved for posterity and tourists, makes a profit! Thank you, Anna!

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Jacinto Kanek Biography and rebellion / history | Thpanorama

Jacinto Kanek (1730 — 1761), the nickname by which José Cecilio de los Santos (or Jacinto Uc de los Santos, depending on the historian) is known, was a local Maya leader who promoted a rebellion against the Spanish authorities of the time in the city of Cisteil, in 1761.

At a time when Indians were not educated, Chanek’s intellect forced him to train with the monks who lived in his area. This gave him a very important knowledge base when it came to analyzing the lives of his people..

This was not the first revolt staged by Mexican indigenous peoples who were systematically alienated from their culture and customs by colonial rule. The Spaniards have always tried to downplay these uprisings, noting that they were antagonized by a small minority of drunks.

Czanec succeeded in disgracing the Spanish army for several days, but at last the great disparity in military means condemned the attempt at failure. This is considered a precursor to what will happen a century later, with the so-called caste war in the Yucatán. Yucatan writer Emilio Abreu Gomez updated facts in book


Early years

The future local leader was born in Campeche in 1730. His real name was José Cecilio de los Santos, although other historians state that he was Jacinto Uc de los Santos. The Mayan family, by origin, worked for the Franciscans.

It was these monks who gave him the opportunity to study, which at that time was forbidden to the locals. His great intelligence caused the monks to greet him and begin shaping him.

Education with the Franciscans

Jacinto took advantage of the opportunity and studied various subjects with the monks. Among them are Latin, theology, history and grammar. A few years later his teacher moved to Merida and Kanek went with him.

It was the acquired knowledge and his natural gifts that made him begin to realize how badly his people live. Nothing conformist, began to ask and protest loudly, which brought him a serious warning from the monks.

This did not silence the young Maya, who continued his attitude. In the end, the Franciscans decided to expel him from the monastery, considering him a rebellious Indian.

I work

After leaving the monastery, Jacinto went to work as a baker. For several years he maintained this occupation, which also served to visit part of the cities of the state and still learns first hand about the plight of the indigenous peoples. insurrection. He sent letters to seek followers and gave January 1762 as his chosen date. The attempt was discovered, so he decided to move forward with the attempt.

It was during this period that he received the nickname Jacinto Kanek, taken from the last leader of the Itza, the last Maya who resisted the Conquest. It comes from the word Can-Ek, which means «black snake».

Seastale Rebellion


Indigenous economic, educational and rights in Kanek’s time condemned them without any means of protection to remain in the poorest part of society. the traditions were almost destroyed, and most of them were forced to work in haciendas in almost slavish conditions.

For this reason, several uprisings had already taken place before Chanek took over. In the decades that followed, many would erupt before the Caste War, a century later.

Beginning of the uprising

The city of Sistey, located near Sotuta, celebrated its religious holiday on November 20, 1761. When the ceremony ended, Jacinto Chanek took the opportunity to address the neighbors who were there. Speaking to them in Maya, he pursued them with these words:

“My beloved children, I do not know what you expect to get rid of the heavy yoke and painstaking slavery in which you have placed subjection to the Spaniards; I went around the whole province and registered all its peoples, and after carefully considering how useful it is for us to submit to Spain, I found nothing but a painful and inexorable slavery . .. The Judge of tribute is not satiated even with the works that He imprisoned our companions nor did he quench our blood thirst in the unbroken eyelashes with which he macerated and broke our bodies «..

Kanek urged them to join the rebellion, claiming he had the powers of a spellcaster. He also told them that he had several sorcerers in his service and that victory was predicted at Chilam Balam.

He promised the listeners that the slain would be resurrected in three days. Finally, he claimed to have enlisted the support of the British. They easily managed to take Cisteil. His only mistake was to let the monk Miguel Ruela escape, who alerted the Spanish authorities to what was happening..

A monk addressed an army captain in Sotut. This, named Tiburcio Cosgaia, soon prepared a detachment to move on to Cisteil. However, Kanek and his men were already prepared: they ambushed the Spanish and several soldiers were killed.

At that time, the rebels thought that their uprising could be successful. Kanek is crowned king of the Maya and promises to cancel the tribute, distribute the wealth left to the Spaniards, and establish an administration led by the Indians. The capital of this new Mayan people will be in Mani.

The second battle

You never know the joy of the rebels. A week after the uprising, the Spaniards organize a large detachment, consisting of 2,000 soldiers.

The attack on Cisteil is brutal and about 500 Maya die, for only 40 soldiers. Only 300 people, including Chanek, managed to escape from the place.

The Last Days of Jacinto Kaneka

The survivors of the Battle of Sistaila are trying to escape to Sivak. For their part, the Spaniards did not want to let them go. In Sivak itself, Kanek is captured along with the rest of his followers. All transferred to Merida.

The main charge facing the indigenous leader is rebellion. To this crime they add blasphemy and declare themselves king. The final trial does not last long and is sentenced to death.

Execution and warning

While the rest of his trapped supporters are also condemned (some hanged and others beaten or maimed), Czanek is particularly cruel.

According to the annals, he must die «captured, his body broken and then burned, and the ashes thrown to the wind.»

Less than a month after the uprising, on December 14, 1861, Jacinto Kanek was executed in accordance with the sentence pronounced in the Plaza Mayor de Mérida.

If the method of Kanek’s execution should already serve as a warning to future rebels, the Spaniards are not satisfied with this. Sisteyl, where the uprising began, is burned and covered with salt.


  1. Carmona Davila, Doralicia. During a religious festival in Quistale, Yucatan, near Sotuta, Jacinto Uc de los Santos «Kanek» starts a Mayan uprising. Retrieved from
  2. CONAPRED. Kanek, Jacinto — Biographies of Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Groups.

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