Biografia de balduino enrico: Biografia de Balduino Enrico

Biografia de Balduino Enrico

(Boudewijn Hendrijks; Edam, ? — Cabañas, 1626) Corsario holandés que protagonizó el famoso asalto a Puerto Rico de 1625. Balduino Enrico es el nombre que los españoles dieron a Boudewijn Hendrijks, un antiguo burgomaestre de Edam que se convirtió en uno de los grandes corsarios de la Compañía de las Indias Occidentales.

En 1625, la Compañía le confió una empresa importante: socorrer Bahía, que estaba en manos holandesas y había sido atacada por los españoles. Recibió para tal misión 34 buques con buena artillería y 6.500 hombres. Balduino llegó cuando los holandeses habían sido ya desalojados de Brasil y hubo entonces de afrontar con su gran flota una empresa secundaria: hostilizar y apoderarse de algunos puertos importantes del enemigo español.

El holandés navegó hasta Paraiba y dividió su flota en dos. Una parte de ella, mandada por Veront, se dirigió a África. La otra, con diecisiete barcos y mandada por el propio Enrico se dirigió a Puerto Rico con ánimo de tomar dicha plaza, y luego La Habana, si se terciaba. Un plan alternativo era tomar Matanzas y fortificarla, para atacar desde allí La Habana.


La flota de Balduino Enrico se retira de San Juan

(óleo de Eugenio Caxés)

Enrico llegó a San Juan el 24 de septiembre de 1625 con su flota y 1.500 hombres. El puerto español tenía poca dotación militar, pero contaba con un castillo en el que servían 350 soldados a las órdenes del gobernador Juan de Haro. Éste comprendió lo inútil de defender la población y se atrincheró en el Morro con sus hombres, para obligar al enemigo a un cerco prolongado, única posibilidad de poder recibir refuerzos.

El holandés se apoderó de San Juan e instaló su cuartel general en la fortaleza, mientras sus tropas efectuaban el correspondiente saqueo de casas y templos. El 27 de septiembre dispuso el asalto al Morro, pero fue rechazado. Conminó a la rendición a Haro una y otra vez sin resultado alguno y le amenazó con quemar la ciudad si no lo hacia; al no recibir respuesta, ordenó incendiar San Juan el 21 octubre. Enrico comprendió al fin la inutilidad de aquella empresa y abandonó Puerto Rico el 1 de noviembre bajo los cañonazos de los españoles, que hundieron el buque Medenblink, propiedad del príncipe de Orange. Enrico perdió más de doscientos hombres, dejando además quince prisioneros que Haro mandó ahorcar.

El corsario pasó luego a Santo Domingo, donde cruzó algunos cañonazos con las baterías del fuerte, y más tarde a Margarita. El 22 de febrero arribó a Pampatar, que tomó fácilmente, y desembarcó en el Pueblo de la Mar (hoy Porlamar), pero ninguna de estas plazas compensaban el esfuerzo económico que se había hecho en el equipamiento de su armada. Siguió a Araya, donde mantuvo un duelo con la artillería del fuerte de Santiago, y prosiguió hacia las Antillas, realizando pequeñas acciones de pillaje.

Balduino decidió entonces poner rumbo a La Habana, cuyas defensas estuvo estudiando varios días, hasta convencerse de que era absurdo de intentar tomarla. Pasó entonces a Matanzas y recaló en Cabañas, donde hizo aguada y robó algún ganado. El corsario enfermó allí de fiebres y murió el 2 de julio de 1626. La armada emprendió entonces el regreso a Holanda, adonde llegaron solamente 700 de los 1.500 hombres con que se había atacado Puerto Rico.

Cmo citar este artculo:
Fernández, Tomás y Tamaro, Elena. «».
En Biografías y Vidas. La enciclopedia biográfica en línea [Internet]. Barcelona, España, 2004. Disponible en

[fecha de acceso: ].

Balduino Enrico. Toda la información sobre Balduino Enrico actualizada 2022.

Si has llegado hasta aquí es porque sabes de la relevancia que detentó Balduino Enrico en la historia. Cómo vivió y aquello que hizo durante el tiempo que estuvo en el mundo fue determinante no sólo para aquellas personas que frecuentaron a Balduino Enrico, sino que a caso legó una huella mucho más vasta de lo que logremosfigurar en la vida de gente que tal vez jamás conocieron ni conocerán ya nunca a Balduino Enrico de forma personal. Balduino Enrico ha sido uno de esos seres humanos que, por alguna razón, merece no ser olvidado, y que para bien o para mal, su nombre nunca debe borrarse de la historia.

Apreciar las luces y las sombras de las personas destacadas como Balduino Enrico, personas que hacen rotar y transformarse al mundo, es una cosa esencial para que seamos capaces de apreciar no sólo la existencia de Balduino Enrico, sino la de todos aquellos y aquellas que fueron inspiradas por Balduino Enrico, gentes a quienes de de una forma u otra Balduino Enrico influyó, y indudablemente, entender y comprender cómo fue el hecho de vivir en el momento de la historia y la sociedad en la que vivió Balduino Enrico.

Las biografías y las vidas de personas que, como Balduino Enrico, cautivan nuestra atención, deben ayudarnos siempre como referencia y reflexión para proponer un marco y un contexto a otra sociedad y otra etapa de la historia que no son las nuestras. Hacer un esfuerzo por comprender la biografía de Balduino Enrico, porqué Balduino Enrico vivió como lo hizo y actuó del modo en que lo hizo durante su vida, es algo que nos impulsará por un lado a comprender mejor el alma del ser humano, y por el otro, la forma en que avanza, de forma implacable, la historia.

Vida y Biografía de

Balduino Enrico

(Boudewijn Hendrijks; Edam, ? — Cabañas, 1626) Corsario holandés que protagonizó el popular ataque a Puerto Rico de 1625. Balduino Enrico es el nombre que los españoles brindaron a Boudewijn Hendrijks, un viejo burgomaestre de Edam que se transformó en entre los enormes corsarios de la Compañía de las Indias Occidentales.

En 1625, la Compañía le confió una compañía esencial: socorrer Bahía, que se encontraba en manos holandesas y había sido atacada por los españoles. Recibió para tal misión 34 buques con buena artillería y 6.500 hombres. Balduino llegó en el momento en que los holandeses habían sido ahora desalojados de Brasil y hubo entonces de enfrentar con su enorme flota una compañía secundaria: hostilizar y conseguir el poder de ciertos puertos esenciales del enemigo español.

El holandés navegó hasta Paraiba y dividió su flota en 2. Una una parte de ella, mandada por Veront, se dirigió a África. La otra, con diecisiete navíos y mandada por nuestro Enrico se dirigió a Puerto Rico con ánimo de tomar esa plaza, y después La Habana, si se terciaba. Un plan alterno era tomar Matanzas y fortificarla, para agredir desde allí La Habana.

Enrico llegó a San Juan el 24 de septiembre de 1625 con su flota y 1.500 hombres. El puerto español tenía poca dotación militar, pero tenía un castillo en el que servían 350 soldados bajo el mando del gobernador Juan de Haro. Este entendió lo inútil de proteger la población y se atrincheró en el Morro con sus hombres, para obligar al enemigo a un cerco prolongado, única oportunidad de poder recibir refuerzos.

El holandés se apoderó de San Juan y también instaló su cuartel general en la fortaleza, mientras que sus tropas realizaban el pertinente saqueo de viviendas y santuarios. El 27 de septiembre dispuso el ataque al Morro, pero fue rechazado. Conminó a la rendición a Haro constantemente sin resultado alguno y le conminó con abrasar la localidad si no lo hacia; al no recibir contestación, ordenó incendiar San Juan el 21 octubre. Enrico entendió por fin la inutilidad de aquella compañía y abandonó Puerto Rico el 1 de noviembre bajo los cañonazos de los españoles, que hundieron el buque Medenblink, propiedad del príncipe de Orange. Enrico perdió mucho más de doscientos hombres, dejando además de esto quince presos que Haro mandó ahorcar.

El corsario pasó entonces a Santo Domingo, donde cruzó ciertos cañonazos con las baterías del fuerte, y después a Margarita. El 22 de febrero arribó a Pampatar, que tomó de forma fácil, y desembarcó en el Pueblo de la Mar (el día de hoy Porlamar), pero ninguna de estas plazas compensaban el ahínco económico que se había hecho en el equipamiento de su armada. Siguió a Araya, donde sostuvo un desafío con la artillería del fuerte de Santiago, y siguió hacia las Antillas, haciendo pequeñas acciones de pillaje.

Balduino decidió entonces poner con rumbo a La Habana, cuyas defensas estuvo aprendiendo múltiples días, hasta persuadirse de que era absurdo de procurar tomarla. Pasó entonces a Matanzas y recaló en Cabañas, donde logró aguada y robó algún ganado. El corsario enfermó allí de fiebres y murió el 2 de julio de 1626. La armada emprendió entonces el regreso a Holanda, adonde llegaron únicamente 700 de los 1.500 hombres con que se había atacado Puerto Rico.

Colabora para ampliar la biografía de

Balduino Enrico

¿Qué te ha parecido la biografía de Balduino Enrico? ¿Hallaste toda aquella información que deseabas encontrar?

Es cierto que conocer profundamente a Balduino Enrico es algo que está reservado a un grupo limitado de personas, y que tratar de reconstruir quién fue y cómo fue la vida de Balduino Enrico es una especie de puzzleque probablemente logremos rehacer si colaboramos todos a la vez.

Por ese motivo, si eres del tipo de personas que confían en que de forma colaborativa existen posibilidades de hacer algo mejor, y detentas información sobre la biografía de Balduino Enrico, o sobre algún característica de su persona u obra que no se contemple en esta biografía, te solicitamos que nos lo hagas llegar.

Los matices y las sutilezas que llenan nuestras vidas son decididamente imprescindibles, ya que destacan la singularidad, y en el tema de la vida de una persona como Balduino Enrico, que poseyó su importancia en una época determinada, es fundamental procurar brindar un aspecto de su persona, vida y personalidad lo más rigurosa posible.

No lo dudes y contacta con nosotros para contarnos qué conoces en relación con Balduino Enrico. Estaremos ilusionados de ultimar esta biografía con más información.

Bernardo de Balbuena biography and creativity / literature | Thpanorama

Bernardo de Balbuena (1568-1627) was a famous poet and churchman, admired for his great achievements in both fields. As a writer, he is known for his broad poetry, developed in works such as Golden Age in the Jungles of Erifile and Mexican Grandeur , among others.

The recognition of his poetry made him one of the most important poets of colonial America. In addition, he held several religious offices, among which stands out the one associated with the abbey in Jamaica in 1608..

His church career continued to grow, and in 1620 he was appointed the first Bishop of Puerto Rico, an appointment he held until the day he died.

This character is remembered for being an outstanding representative in the field of literature, as well as an exemplary priest who knew how to balance his work as a writer with his priestly obligations.

index

  • Mexico
  • 1.2 Careers in development
  • 1.3 Historical data of his work
  • 1.4 Death
  • 2 Work
    • 2.1 Mexican greatness
    • 2.2 Golden Age in the forests of Erifile
    • 2.3 Victoria de Ronswalles
  • 3 Links
  • biography

    Bernardo de Balbuena was born on November 20, 1568 in Valdepeñas, Gregorio Villanueva, Spain. His mother’s name was Luisa de Velasco and was the illegitimate son of Bernardo de Balbuena. .

    He spent his childhood and youth with his mother in Spain, as his father abandoned him from childhood. This fact marked him in the deepest.

    The influence of the absence of a father in childhood can be seen in his work Bernardo or Victoria de Roncesvalles where the author indirectly expresses the difficulty that it meant for him to grow up without a father figure.

    For many years, while still very young, he went to Mexico to meet his father and study.

    Trip to Mexico

    Balbuena grew up in Nueva Galicia and in 1584 he applied for a residence permit in Mexico with his father. When he arrived, he studied theology and entered the seminary to be ordained a priest.

    His studies were carried out at the University of Mexico between 1585 and 1590. In those years, Bernardo de Balbuena won his first poetry competitions; At that time I already lived in the city of Guadalajara.

    Career development

    While in Mexico his career as a poet and priest was on the rise. In 1592 he was appointed chaplain to the Royal Auditorium of Guadalajara, believing that he was only 30 years old. devoted time to writing, without neglecting his duties as a priest.

    In 1603 he returned to Mexico City. Through his discipline and love of writing, he managed to present his work in 1604. Mexican grandeur . In this text he describes Mexico City, and this was his beginning to be recognized in the world of letters.

    Finally he said goodbye to Mexico in 1606 and went to Madrid where he completed his doctorate in theology at the University of Sigüenza. In parallel, he continued to strive to train in order to obtain an important church position..

    After two years in Spain, he published Golden Age in the Jungles of Erifile , a work that was printed in 1608 in Madrid. This is a series of lyrical pastoral poems with prose.

    On the other hand, while his passion for letters and poetry was growing, in 1610 he was appointed rector in Jamaica. During this period he developed his work Bernardo or Victoria de Roncesvalles which was published in 1624.

    Later, in 1620, he achieved an important promotion in the church and was appointed Bishop of San Juan de Puerto Rico.

    Historical data of his work

    In general, little historical data of Bernardo de Balbuena is kept. This is due, among other things, to the fact that in 1625 there was a serious tragedy for the poetry of this writer, a fact that filled him with sadness and accompanied him until the end of his days.

    During this year, the Dutch corsair Balduino Enrico, who played a major role in the storming of San Juan de Puerto Rico, destroyed Bernardo de Balbuena’s palace and caused considerable losses in literature, as he destroyed much of his work. The writer never recovered from this tragedy.

    With the destruction of his library, works such as poetry were lost Divine Christiados and Highness Laura .

    death

    On October 11, 1627, at the age of 59, Bernardo de Balbuena died in San Juan, Puerto Rico. As mentioned above, the loss of his job was a sadness that accompanied him until his last days.

    factory

    Mexican greatness

    This is a poem written in 1604, which in its narrative describes the greatness and greatness of Mexico in nine chapters. It is considered the most important descriptive lyric poem of the time.

    In this work you can see how Bernardo de Balbuena used and mixed humanist culture with Renaissance poetry; In addition, it is the constant praise of Mexico City.

    At first glance, it was not very uniform. It was published in two editions with different themes, the first printing was made in Mexico by Melchior de Ocharte and the second by Diego López Davalos. Its last issue saw the light in Madrid in 2011.

    The Golden Age in the Erifile Jungle

    This was published in Madrid in 1608. It is a pastoral poem containing twelve eclogues, told in the first person with exceptional poetic prose.

    The golden age in the jungle of Erifile Critics consider it one of the best poems in Spain. However, many readers of the time did not support Balbuena’s work.

    Bernardo or Victoria de Roncesvalles

    This work took many years, but the result is a fantastic work of 24 songs and 40,000 poems. It was printed in 1624 by Diego Flamenco in Madrid and was reprinted from 1808 to 1914.

    Bernardo or Victoria de Roncesvalles was one of his most ambitious, creative and erudite works inspired by Italian Renaissance authors such as Ludovico Ariosto and Matteo Maria Boiardo.

    Other recognized verses

    Apologetic collection for the glory of poetry.

    -poem I am lost, lady, among the people .

    Lyric poetry .

    links

    1. Bernardo de Balbuena in Britannica. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Britannica: britannica.com
    2. Bernardo de Balbuena in Ecured. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from EcuRed: ecured.cu
    3. Bernardo de Balbuena in Historic. Retrieved December 10, 2018 Historical: historical.unam.mx
    4. Bernardo de Balbuena (Portrait) on Wikisource. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from Wikisource: en.wikisource.org
    5. Cuello, T. On the golden age in the forests of Erifil de Bernardo de Balbuena at Cuyo National University Digital Library. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Bdigital UNCU: bdigital.uncu.edu.ar
    6. Bernardo or Victoria de Roncesvalles Bernardo de Balbuena (1624) at Estudiosindiano. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from the Estudiosindiano website: Estudiosindianos.org
    7. The greatness of the Mexican Bernardo de Balbuena, Javier Ponce in sync. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Sincronia: sincronia.cucsh.udg.mx
    8. by Bernardo de Balbuena on Wikipedia. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Wikipedia: en. wikipedia.org

    Why is the tomb of the Cilician King Levon V located in the abbey of Saint-Denis? – Armenian Museum of Moscow and the culture of nations

    History, ArtOlga Kazak history of Armenia, Armenian rulers, Cilicia

    History, ArtOlga Kazak history of Armenia, Armenian rulers, Cilicia

    In the French abbey Saint-Denis, located in the suburbs of Paris, there is a very unusual tomb in which the Armenian king Levon V is buried (in some sources this ruler is listed as Levon VI). How did this burial place end up here, in the abbey, which served as the tomb of the famous dynasties of French kings, starting from the 12th century? About this — a small investigation of the Armenian Museum of Moscow.

    Saint-Denis — Necropolis of the Kings

    Let’s start with a short but important background. The Abbey of Saint-Denis is the heart of European Gothic. The first basilica in the Gothic style was erected here under the patronage of Abbot Suger. This church, with the active participation of the abbot, was built in 1137-1144 — the building influenced the development of Gothic in France, in fact, laying the foundation for the future religious and state program of France. Suger himself, as you know, was the right hand of the two kings of Louis — VI and VII — and put his life into sacralizing the royal power. And he achieved unprecedented success in this difficult task of exalting rulers to the level of God’s anointed ones.

    Photo: art-grea.ru

    But our story is about Levon V and how the king of Armenian Cilicia got into the company of the crowned French dead.

    The story is actually sad and short.

    Pedigree of Levon V

    Thanks to this tomb, we know what the last king of Cilicia looked like. It is believed that when making the sculpture, portrait resemblance was taken into account, since a cast was made from Levon’s face. Photo: armeniasputnik.am

    At the very end of the 14th century, to be precise, on September 14, 1374, in the glorious city of Sis, the capital of the kingdom of Armenian Cilicia, a new monarch, Levon V, was crowned. He ascended the throne together with his august wife Margaret of Soissons. [Some sources say that Margarita’s real name was Mariun. — Approx. ed.] . Levon V was a real infant — the son of King John II of Lusignan — «an important boss.»

    John of Lusignan, or according to other sources, Jean de Lusignan, ruled in fact only Cyprus, but in the documents he was solemnly listed as the monarch of two more states — Jerusalem and Cilician Armenia — and was, in addition, the titular prince of Antioch. John II was a prominent representative of the French de Lusignan dynasty, which originated from Poitou. The sources indicate the mother of Levon V as a princess named Soldanna, whom historians consider the daughter of King George V of Georgia.

    Archaeological coin from the reign of John II de Lusignan in Cyprus. Photo: auction.ru

    Rod de Lusignan

    The Lusignan surname was one of the noble families of Western France, which got its name from the castle of Lusignan, which the representatives of the dynasty held as vassals of the counts of Poitou and the dukes of Aquitaine. In connection with the participation of the Lusignans in the crusades, the representatives of this family developed close ties in the states of the crusaders in the Middle East.

    Known members of the genus

    Amaury Lusignan. He took part in the rebellion against the English King Henry II and fled from persecution to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Here he did everything to marry his brother Guy to the heiress of the throne of Jerusalem, Sibylla. After the death of her brother Baldwin IV and the infant son Baldwin V, Guy de Lusignan becomes king of Jerusalem (in 1186). However, the following year Guy was defeated by the Muslims under the leadership of Salah ad-Din at the Battle of Hattin. Guy de Lusignan was captured and lost Jerusalem. After his release, however, he was refused return to the Holy Land by Conrad of Montferrat, who for some time was the king of Jerusalem (1192). As a result, Guy buys from Richard I the Lionheart the rights to Cyprus conquered by the British. After the death of Guy’s great-grandson, Hugh III, Cyprus turned out to be lost for the Lusignan family, since Hugo’s heir and cousin, being also the great-grandson of Amaury, although he bore the surname Lusignan, was already a member of the family of the Counts of Poitou by origin.

    Hugo VI de Lusignan. Lived in France. Received the nickname «Devil». Occurred on his mother from the family of the Comtes de La Marche, after the suppression in 109The 0s of this dynasty in the male tribe laid claim to the earldom, but in the end it went to his cousin Almodisa de La Marche and her husband Roger Montgomery. Despite this, Hugh VI of Lusignan appropriated the title of Comte de La Marche to himself. In 1178, La Marche was sold to the English king, and in 1199, Hugh IX Lusignan kidnapped the Dowager of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and forced her and her son John the Landless to recognize his rights to the earldom.

    While Amaury and Guy Lusignan, junior representatives of the family, participated in the crusades and secured lands in the East, the members of the family who remained in France tried to strengthen and increase the possessions they had inherited in their homeland.

    Raoul Lusignan. The younger brother Hugo IX, in 1194, having married, acquires the county of E in Normandy, and his nephew Hugh X of Lusignan in 1220, having married the widow of the English king John the Landless Isabella of Angouleme, becomes the count of Angouleme. While the county of E was lost by the Lusignans a generation later, they held the counties of March and Angouleme until 1309, when, after the death of the last count of Lusignan, his sisters transferred these possessions to the French crown.

    King for seven months

    The anointing of Levon V to the throne took place magnificently, with observance of all church rites in the capital’s Cathedral of St. Sophia. It was also noteworthy that the coronation was scheduled for the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, perhaps because Levon V himself was not just a ruler according to the dynastic “blood type”, but also a crusader knight. During the anointing to the kingdom, Queen Margaret of Soissons was in the process of demolition and a little later, in September of the same year, she was relieved of the burden, giving birth to twins — Princesses Mariam and Katarine. The fate of the king’s daughters is tragic — they died in infancy.

    The reign of Levon V began so gloriously. But it ended just seven months after he ascended the throne. The theater of political action in the 14th century was dramatic for Europe and tragic for the newly minted king of Cilicia. The difficult relationship of Levon V with the impenetrable Pope Gregory XI and a number of unfulfilled agreements of the Roman throne in relation to Cilicia became the reason why the «knights of the desert» Mamluks managed to get into Sis. The cunning invaders accurately calculated all the benefits and probed the weaknesses of the Cilician ruler. Being sure that Rome would not send an army to help Levon, already in 1375 the Mamluks freely crossed the Cilician border. Levon and his associates fought as best they could, but they failed to hold back the onslaught of the enemy troops — the Armenians were forced to retreat.

    Mamluks of the Middle Ages. Illustration: zen.yandex.ua

    The king fortified himself in the Citadel of Sis, located high up on a hard-to-reach rock. The troops storming the fortress failed after failure, but the well-aimed archers of the desert managed to wound Levon V. The wounds were not fatal, but the king could no longer fight. As in any royal army, legionnaires served in Leovna’s army. Seeing that the case smells of fried, hired soldiers [and these were guys from his father’s homeland, Cypriot warriors. — Approx. ed.] decided to save their lives and surrender to the opponent of the king. The legionnaires managed to get into the tower, where the bleeding monarch lay. The traitors tried to steal the wounded king, but Levon V’s bodyguards repulsed the attackers.

    Further events unfolded even more sadly. An acute shortage of food and water began in the fortress, some died, and in general, the forces of the defenders of the capital were running out. The population, murmuring and weakened from hunger, was already inclined to the idea of ​​surrender, when suddenly Levon VI was brought a letter of protection from the Emir of Aleppo, which guaranteed the life of him and his family in the event of the surrender of Sis. Levon thought and thought and decided to surrender to the mercy of the winner — to save the people and his family, his family. As a prisoner, the Mamluks took him to Cairo along with the queen, daughters, court princes and Catholicos Poghos I.

    In 1375, the Mamluks captured the last fortress of Cilician Armenia — Gaban. The country has fallen.

    Sis Fortress. Photo: wikipedia.org

    Wanderings in search of the lost kingdom

    The daughters of Levon V and Queen Margaret lived a little over a year. Both babies could not stand life in the harsh conditions of captivity and died. After the queen was redeemed from captivity, the inconsolable Margarita left for Jerusalem, where she settled in the Armenian monastery of Surb Hakob (St. James). She lived in the monastery for the rest of her life, praying to God for the souls of her innocently injured babies.

    Surb Hakob. Jerusalem. Source: yandex.ru

    Pilgrim Jean Dardel , whom Levon met in August 1377, was imbued with sympathy for the noble king of Armenia. Returning to Europe, Dardel managed to persuade King Juan I of Castile to ransom the captive monarch. When this happened, Levon immediately went to Western Europe — to ask the Pope and Christian monarchs for help in saving Cilicia, the Christian stronghold in the East. But the king was received coldly. Instead of the support expected and much needed by the king, the Pope awarded Levon the Golden Rose and advised him to go to Britain, where the state treasury of Cilicia was kept under seven locks under the care of the English king Edward III Plantagenet. According to the agreement, the treasury was to be kept in England until the restoration of the Armenian Cilician kingdom.

    Not having “where to lay his head”, desperate Levon went to Spain, where the Castilian king Juan I unexpectedly presented Levon with three cities that made up the heart of Castile — Madrid, Andujar and Vilareal ( modern Ciudad Real ) — and supplied the Cilician king an annual subsidy of 150,000 Spanish maravedi [there is a corresponding certificate about this in the annals of the Madrid city office. — Approx. ed.].

    The nobles of Castile did not like the decision of the king. Well-born aristocrats did not want to become vassals of some foreign knight there. Representatives of the Castilian nobility condemned the act of Juan I with undisguised hostility — a conspiracy was ripening, the result of which was the mysterious death of Juan I on October 8, 1390 years. The regents of the minor son of King Enrique III immediately annulled the privileges granted to the Cilician monarch. And then the expected happened — the Castilian courtiers and local clergy hunted Levon V. The Armenian king, out of harm’s way, on October 19, 1389, renounced all previously granted privileges and went to France — to King Charles VI.

    In Paris, Levon was greeted with applause and «caps were thrown into the air.» Personally, Charles VI, accompanied by the entire court and the townspeople, cordially waited for Levon on the outskirts of the capital. The king of Armenia settled here, still cherishing the hope of the liberation of Cilicia. He made an attempt to improve relations between France and England, who were at that time in a state of war, which went down in history as the Hundred Years, hoping to get help in the liberation of his own country during the new Crusade. But all of Levon’s efforts were in vain. The page of the history of the Cilician kingdom was already turned over. Armenian medieval historians and chroniclers already considered the fall of Sis and Cilician Armenia as the end of Armenian statehood. The revival of the Armenian state, already on the lands of the Armenian Highlands, took place only in 1918 year.

    Juan I — King of Castile. Source: armat.im

    Levon died in Paris on November 29, 1393. His title and privileges passed to James I, king of Cyprus, who thereby united the titles of the rulers of the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus and Cilicia. Levon V was buried in the Monastery of the Celestines, the second most important necropolis for the burial of royalty after Saint-Denis. But this is not the end of the story. After the French Revolution, the white marble tombstone of Levon VI was transferred to the monastery of Saint-Denis. However, the grave itself has long been empty: the remains of the King of Armenia, along with the ashes of the French monarchs, were thrown out by passionate French revolutionaries as a sign of the beginning of great state changes.

    Tomb of Levon V in the tomb of the kings of the Basilica of Saint-Denis. Photo: radiovan.fm

    The characteristic of the French historian, author of the chronicles of the Hundred Years War Froissart, has been preserved about Levon V: “Deprived of the throne, he retained the royal virtues and added new ones to them — generosity and patience. With his do-gooder Charles VI, he treated like a friend, but he never forgot his own royal dignity. And Levon’s death was worthy of his life.»

    Gravestone made by an anonymous author in Gothic style.

    Добавить комментарий

    Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *