Museo de pr: Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico

El Museo De Arte De Ponce Literally Weathers Storms, Preserving Pre-Raphaelites and Seeking Funding

Frederic Leighton (1830-1896), Flaming June, c. 1895, Óleo sobre lienzo, 46 7/8 x 46 7/8 pulgadas … [+] (119 x 119 cm.), Museo de Arte de Ponce.

The Luis A. Ferré Foundation, Inc.

El Museo de Arte de Ponce in Puerto Rico doesn’t have to worry about climate activists. They have to worry about the climate itself.

Hurricanes, earthquakes, let alone a global pandemic: The list of disasters would seem insurmountable to most, but the team in Ponce demonstrated unprecedented work ethic and resilience. Despite each obstacle, dialogues between earth and art, climate and museum, and above all, raw humanity and true beauty are ongoing.

When rain falls like a bomb

Alejandra Peña-Gutiérrez, former director of the Museo de Arte de Ponce, works to clean up the … [+] museum grounds after Hurricane Maria in 2017.

Museo de Arte de Ponce

“Hurricane Maria was devastating,” President of the Board of Trustees Maria Luisa Ferré Rangel explained. “Puerto Rico was completely, completely destroyed. It was like a bomb blew us all away. We had no communication at all.”

Rangel only learned that the museum was intact via a handwritten note on the door, passed to her at home when someone crossed the island.

Miraculously, the museum was intact. But without internet or diesel, former Museum Director Alejandra Peña-Gutiérrez (now replaced by Cheryl Hartup) ended up biking to the local radio station to announce the news on air: Just five days later, Museo de Ponce was open.


After the 2017 hurricane, Puerto Rico had no electricity for six months. The museum relied on a generator, loading the tank up with gas after a long truck journey for refills every day. As one of the only locations on the island that had access to any power at all, the museum quickly became a sanctuary for people far beyond the experience of art. A safe haven. Toilets and showers, phone charging, and even ice and fresh drinking water were luxuries they graciously shared.

The way Rangel tells it, is as if the Museo was (and is) prepared for anything. They had even withdrawn cash reserves before the hurricane as a precaution—and sure enough, when the ATMs were no longer working, they were able to pay their employees.

When a superflu shuts the world down

A medical personnel stands at the entrance of a municipal COVID-19 drive-thru testing site in San … [+] Juan, Puerto Rico on March 25, 2020. — Almost one billion people were confined to their homes worldwide as the global coronavirus death toll topped 12,000 and US states rolled out stay-at-home measures already imposed across swathes of Europe. More than a third of Americans were adjusting to life in various phases of virtual lockdown — including in the US’s three biggest cities of New York, Los Angeles and Chicago — with more states expected to ramp up restrictions. (Photo by Ricardo ARDUENGO / AFP) (Photo by RICARDO ARDUENGO/AFP via Getty Images)

AFP via Getty Images

After the utter catastrophe of the Hurricane, COVID-19 felt like an opportunity to digitize and promote in a new way.

“I think it was surprising,” Rangel said of the virus. “How do you reinvent yourself to continue with your mission? In a way, it was a blessing in disguise, because we created a whole program. We were able to learn how to use social media and bring communities together from all over the world who would not have experienced the museum.”

Yet the optimism of pivoting was still under the dark shadow of broader paralysis. The Museo was inherently a brick-and-mortar space, unable to receive visitors. Furthermore, the Recession and Hurricane Maria had already deeply hurt Puerto Rico’s economy, and fundraising was not what it could have been with both these disasters in combination.

Spanish-born curator Dr. Pablo Pérez d’Ors, who worked at Museo de Ponce from 2011 to 2018 and is now at Museu Fundación Juan March, wrote for The Art Newspaper about this challenging financial time.

“The early 2000s were still full of promise for a museum that was ripe for transformation…A public campaign was launched to finance a much-needed renovation and expansion project and in 2004 the trustees hired a new executive to oversee the process.

But in the wake of these natural disasters, Pérez d’Ors explained that the museum, “was seen as stagnant and old-fashioned”, and ended up spending $30 million, nearly three times the initial budget, depleting the museum endowment to $14 million in debts.

“Ten years ago, Ponce could be described as charmingly decrepit; now it is unsafe and depopulated,” Pérez d’Ors wrote in December 2021. “Can MAP attract experienced museum professionals in the current circumstances?”

Rangel has a clear rebuttal to Pérez d’Ors. In December 2022, she cited just a $5-million-dollar debt to the bank for the construction loan.

“Our portfolio is very healthy,” she said.

Besides, the extensive renovation was “completely necessary”.

The 1965 building design was created by Edward Durell Stone, best known as the architect behind The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. and The Museum of Modern Art in New York.

So, by the 2000s, the building needed to be brought up to code, sun-proofing skylights and building a conservation lab and back office expansion. Without these new wings, Hurricane Maria relief may not have been possible. The multimillion-dollar debt, challenging as it was, was another blessing in disguise.

Because after everything, the worst was still yet to come.

Earthquakes for a decade

2020 earthquake damage threatened the structure of the building, and all art had to be relocated to … [+] safety. The walls hung empty.

Museo de Ponce

Amidst global pandemic, 2020 was the worst historically recorded period for earthquakes in Puerto Rico in more than a hundred years. On January 6th, a 5.8 magnitude earthquake was registered. On January 7th, 6.4 On January 11th, 5.9; January 15th, 5.2; January 25th, 5.0. In May 2020, another 5.4 earthquake struck the same area again, as did a 4.8 earthquake in August. These spring and summer quakes are considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to be an aftershock of the first earthquake. Other ongoing tremors have been reported throughout, numbering into the thousands according to many outlets. UGSG wrote that there is a 25 percent chance of earthquakes more than 5 for more than 10 years to come.

After the first quake, Rangel flew by helicopter over the scene and saw the full scale of the devastation. She walked towards the museum and tears streamed down her face.

‘How would they fix it this time?’ she thought to herself.

Pieces of the building had fallen inward; trees had toppled; debris piled up around the premises.

But when Rangel walked into the exhibits, she gasped.

Not a single work of art had fallen from the walls. No debris or water had entered the rooms.

This gave the staff time to move the art into storage and eventually out of the country, even as the earth literally trembled and building pieces continued to fall around them.

“We didn’t know if the second floor was going to collapse or not,” Rangel recalled, “But they had machines, the hats, and the trailers, and we had the logistics to get everything out as quickly as possible. Thank God we had done the renovation, because we had enough storage rooms.”

The new wings for education and libraries had enough storage to receive works in a protected manner, and the walls stood empty. They remain closed through at least 2024.

Legacy built to last

General view of the exterior of the Museo de Arte de Ponce (MAP), designed by architect Edward … [+] Durell Stone, featuring grille openings in the walls to diffuse light entering the galleries, permit cross ventilation and provide views from within the building of the attractive landscaping, located in Ponce, Puerto Rico, circa 1965. The museum which contains 14 galleries, two gardens, and an amphitheatre, was officially opened on 28 December 1965. (Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Getty Images

Museo de Arte de Ponce was founded in 1959 by Luis Alberto Ferré (1904-2003), who later served as Governor of Puerto Rico from 1969 to 1973. An industrialist hailing from French lineage and having studied in Boston, Ferré developed a personal appreciation for Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite art, collecting until 1974. Spanish, Italian Baroque, and Puerto Rican art also adorn the diverse collection, but it is the Pre-Raphaelite art, once considered out of favor, that has caught the eye of global audiences. Museo de Arte de Ponce press teams state that theirs is one of the most important collections of Victorian art outside the United Kingdom.

Ferré passed away at the age of 99, and Rangel is his granddaughter.

Her grandfather was close with the Rockefellers, and modeled his art foundation after their philanthropic effort. To that end, the Museo de Ponce collection is not intended for the family or private showcase, but for public consumption and reflection to expand the mind.

The upside of climate tragedy is that the museum’s collection now travels further than ever before, in an effort to preserve, protect, and proliferate its messages.

During this initial closure, Edward Burne-Jones’s The Sleep of King Arthur in Avalon (1898) toured the United States and Europe, and Lioness and Heron by James Ward was deaccessioned into a private collection.

A number of Pre-Raphaelite works are displayed currently on loan to New York City’s Metropolitan Museum of Art through the museum’s planned reopening in February 2024, with Flaming June by Lord Frederick Leighton as arguably the most famous among them, as well as John Everett Millais’ The Escape of a Heretic, 1559, and Edward Burne-Jones’s Small Briar Rose series. Flaming June was previously displayed at the Frick Collection in New York, with Dr. Pérez d’Ors’ thorough research amplifying the showcase.

Other partnerships include Chicago’s National Museum of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture, hosting “Nostalgia for My Island: Puerto Rican Painting from the Museo do Arte de Ponce (1786-1962)”, and an alliance with the national museum Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico.

Rangel explained that the mix of local and international artists is just as relevant to both types of audiences. She highlighted the humane relief efforts the museum continues to do for the locals, including seminar programs for the incarcerated, docent programs for low-income children, and posttraumatic stress disorder courses for victims of the hurricanes and earthquakes.

“I think the spirit of my grandfather is there somewhere because he was not a quitter,” Rangel concluded. “He was not scared of big dreams, of doing things differently, and he really believed in the capacity of the human spirit to recover. So I’m not worried.”

The museum is preparing for the 2024 reopening, maintaining the same resilience that has carried them through so many obstacles. The cafeteria, the library, and the gardens are almost ready.

At least, that’s how Rangel chooses to see the situation. After everything Ponce has been through, optimism is essential.

“Language sometimes starts changing reality. We started saying, ‘We’re not closed. Our main building is under renovation, but the museum is open.’”


The Museum of Public Relations

The Museum of Public Relations is a 501(c)(3) educational institution chartered by the New York State Department of Education to serve the world’s growing community of public relations students, educators, researchers and practitioners. Our mission is to bring PR history to life—exploring and sharing the campaigns, crises and leading figures in public relations history, that will enhance the quality of the practice. 
Founded in 1997, this is the world’s only museum dedicated to the international public relations profession. It reveals the history of the profession, and explores the role of PR in business, society, culture and politics.  

Through 5,000+ rare artifacts, oral histories, letters, photos and film, visitors learn about the profession’s pioneers and their contributions to the practice. Visitors also explore the various social movements which were guided by the underlying principles and philosophies of public relations. 

During class visits to the Museum, students are encouraged to experience PR as it was practiced by our field’s founders from as far back a century ago. Through hands-on exhibits of «ancient» media technologies, oral histories, and artifacts—some from the actual offices of early pioneers Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays and Arthur Page—students learn firsthand the role PR has played in business, society and culture.  

The Museum’s extensive digital archives include video interviews, important out-of-print books, classroom resources, and videos of Museum-sponsored events, including the first-ever events honoring the contributions of African Americans, Latinos, and women in this field. 

A Century of #PRHistory
Since the start of COVID-19, the Museum of Public Relations has conducted all lectures and tours virtually. Despite the inability to operate from our physical space, for which our overhead and expenses continue, we will be there for you when it is safe to meet in person again. Our goal in 2022 is to relocate to a space large enough to house our entire collection and hold classes in person.

What it will take to transition to an in-person museum once again
We continue to provide the international PR community with resources unavailable elsewhere. As part of our goal for 2022, we will need to acquire additional exhibit and book cases, and relocate in order to accommodate classes and events.

Since the start of the pandemic, the Museum has taken our shows online, producing a series of diversity-themed events and a numerous lectures across the US, as well as in Europe, Latin America and Asia. We’ve partnered with various universities throughout the academic year—Elon, UGA, and San Diego State University among them—for educational activities, and lectured frequently to PRSSA chapters. We have also conducted and presented new research on current crisis topics along with our academic partner, the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia.

While the Museum has enjoyed the support of members of the PR community over its 25-plus years, the bulk of the funding continues to be provided by its founders, Shelley and Barry Spector. And we are indebted to the many individuals, agencies, corporations, universities, and organizations who have so generously provided funding in the past.

Become part of our community
Please consider supporting our need to relocate our more than 5,000 books, media, and papers to a new space. The museum’s collection—the only such collection in the world—consists of material from such pioneers as Edward Bernays, Ivy Lee, Doris Fleischman, Inez Kaiser, Ofield Dukes, and Harold Burson, to name a few. These priceless artifacts, many over a century old, tell the intriguing history of our profession, and also demonstrate how PR itself has impacted history.

By digitizing these historical holdings, we’ll be able to preserve them; we’ll be able to make them available to you and the growing PR community around the world electronically, until it is safe for you to visit us in person again.

The Museum that visits you
By making a donation to the Museum today, you will be providing the invaluable support we need as a 501(c)(3) charitable organization to keep our history alive for students, educators, researchers, professionals, and for you.

We sincerely thank you in advance for your support.

We value our partnerships with the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication Department of Advertising and Public Relations at University of Georgia; Amazon; Johnson & Johnson; Westinghouse; Page; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation President’s Grant Fund of the Princeton Area Community Foundation; the Arthur Page Center for Integrity in Public Relations, The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), PR Council, Institute for Public Relations, The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations, Multicultural Marketing Resources, Inc. , Muck Rack, and CommPRO.

TOP masterpieces in the Musée d’Orsay worth seeing + photo

What to see in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris

What to see in the Musée d’Orsay: famous paintings in the station building

visited galleries in Paris. The Musee d’Orsay is famous for its collections of sculpture, painting, decorative arts, graphics, photography, film and architecture.

It exhibits the largest collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works in Europe and the world from the middle of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. nine0005

See also: What to see in the Louvre: TOP masterpieces of the famous museum

The building consists of three levels. The top floor houses paintings by such masters as Van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec, Renoir, Monet, Degas, Gauguin, Pissarro and others.
The second tier is the realm of art from the period of the III Empire, academic painting and art nouveau, covering the time period between 1870 and 1914.

The basement represents the years 1848-1870 with names such as Manet, Ingras, Moreau, Basel and Delacroix. nine0005

The museum fund was replenished from various sources, but mainly from the Louvre, Luxembourg and Petit palaces. Also among the works there are many gifts from the artists themselves and private collectors. For example, the gift of the Texas spouses Spencery Marlene Hayes, who in 2016 presented the museum with about 600 works of art, including paintings, sculptures and sketches, is impressive, with the condition that the gift be kept together.

The Musée d’Orsay is unique in that it resembles a natural piece of the puzzle, filling in the time gap created between the exhibitions of the Louvre (from antiquities to the 18th century) and the Center Georges Pompidou, which emphasizes contemporary art from the 1900 year.

Musee d’Orsay is one of the ten most popular exhibitions in the world and three in Paris. The majestic building is hard to miss, especially since it is located opposite the Tuileries Garden on the left bank of the Seine.

Be sure to take the time to visit this amazing treasure trove of world art. Since thousands of works have been collected on a huge area, it is quite difficult to single out and recommend a certain part for inspection, especially since everyone has their own idols.

But everyone should see some of the paintings of the Musee d’Orsay, because they are truly precious pearls. nine0005

Vincent van Gogh

Peasant woman near the hearth (1885)

Peasant woman near the hearth

One of the rare early works of the master in his so-called «peasant» period, when he used mainly dark tones, emphasizing the hardships of life common people.

Imperial fritrillaire in a copper vase (1887)

Imperial fritrillaire in a copper vase

When creating this bouquet, Vincent was thinking about Agostina Sigatori, owner of the Tambourine Café on Boulevard Clichy, with whom he was infatuated at the time. nine0005

He gave her painted flowers instead of living ones, because they would never wither.

The artist Emile Bernard once joked about this that the Tambourine would soon turn into an artificial garden.

Starry Night (1888)

Starry Night (1888)

The painting appeared at the beginning of Van Gogh’s stay at the Arles clinic. He had long wanted to write a starry night full of bright colors. In one of his letters, he wrote: «Often it seems to me that the night is even more intensely colored than the day.» nine0005

Despite the artist’s use of dark shades of blue, the stars look like sparkling jewels against such a background, and a couple in love brings a sense of peace to the atmosphere.

Van Gogh’s bedroom in Arles (1889)

Van Gogh’s bedroom in Arles

One of three almost identical paintings depicting the real environment of the artist’s interior during his treatment in the Arles clinic. The peculiarity is that the master depicted his other canvases on the walls of the painted apartments. nine0005

In a letter to his brother Theo, Van Gogh wrote that he wanted to convey the peace he long needed.

Self-portrait (1889)

Self-portrait Van Gogh

In 10 years the painter created more than forty self-portraits. So he saved on sitters and watched the changes in his inner «I», which is inaccessible to any photographer. You could say it’s a kind of revelation.

Henri Toulouse-Lautrec

Being a famous womanizer and reveler, it is not surprising that there are so many images of women among his works. nine0005

Rousse is also called Toilet (1889)

Rousse is also called Toilet (1889)

One of those paintings where he presented nature “no frills”, as if peeping at her through a keyhole to find out what lovely creatures do when they are alone.

A characteristic feature of the master’s brush is the model’s red hair. It was this color that Lautrec adored and almost always endowed them with models on his canvases.

One (1890 d.)


A quick sketch of a lithograph depicting the life of the inhabitants of a brothel. The artist himself was a frequent visitor to such establishments, and did not see anything reprehensible in this. Drawing girls, he did not try to embellish reality, and in this case we see the moment when a prostitute offers herself to another client.

James Tissot

Meeting of Faust and Marguerite (1860)

Meeting of Faust and Marguerite (1860)

The master’s plot was inspired by Goethe’s Tragedy of Faust. He was also fascinated by the idea of ​​the revival of historical painting, where with the help of costumes, facial expressions, postures, architecture and bright colors, the illusion of the reality of what was happening was created. nine0005

Paul Signac

Les Andelys; TheRiverbank (1886)

Les Andelys; TheRiverbank

The painting was painted at a turning point in the change of the artist’s style. Living at one time in Les Andelys, Signac painted a series of ten landscapes in the style of the Division, and this is one of the main ones.

Paul Series

Paul Tetrahedron (1910)

Paul Sérusier Paul Tetrahedron

This is the most mystical and abstract painting from a triptych: tetrahedron, golden cylinder and origin. It contains a deep intention, to show the origin of life and the universe, the connection between people and the cosmos. nine0005

Théodore Rousseau

Avenue in the Forest L’Isle-Adam (1849)

Avenue in the Forest L’Isle-Adam (1849)

The artist is known for his extraordinary love of nature, and he is considered one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century.

He preferred to paint from nature, he could draw every leaf or tree for hours.

Rousseau traveled to L’Isle-Adam three springs in a row to capture that vertical light that is considered particularly difficult to convey on canvas. nine0005

Auguste Renoir

Boy with a cat (1868)

Boy with a cat

The painting belongs to the period of the beginning of the painter’s career and is unique in that such a male nude no longer has analogues in Renoir’s work.

Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)

Ball at the Moulin de la Galette

One of the most important works of the painter, although he was criticized by his contemporaries during the exhibition of the Impressionists in 1877. The artist conveyed the desire of the Parisians to fun and entertainment, depicting the joyful atmosphere of the popular dance garden at Bute Montmartre, and in the crowd — some of his best friends. nine0005

Bathers (1910)


This is both an experiment and a return to the painter’s favorite theme — action in nature. This canvas is a kind of Garden of Eden, an idyllic vision of the sensuality of the models, for which rich colors and full forms were used. It is also difficult not to notice the artist’s passion for the works of Rubens and Titian.

Odilon Redon

Son of Caliban (1895 — 1900)

Son of Caliban

Inspired by the world of Shakespeare’s «The Tempest», Redon transferred to the canvas the myth of Caliban — an indomitable evil creature, the son of a witch, who came into conflict with Prospero — the Duke of Milan, exiled to a desert island inhabited only by insidious entities.

While Caliban, a frail dwarf with huge ears, is dozing under a tree, Ariel’s helpers of the air spirit spy on him to report what he has seen to Prospero.

Gustave Moreau

Orpheus (1865)

Gustave Moreau

The picture is permeated with mysticism, mystery and sadness. This is a story from Greek mythology about Orpheus, who was such a skilled poet and musician that he could charm even wild animals. However, his charm did not work on the maenads, and after the death of Eurydice, they tore him apart for rejecting them.

In Moreau’s painting, a girl cherishes the poet’s head, laying it on a tortoise-shell lyre. This is consistent with the myth that the first lyre was made from this material. nine0005

The scene and the very background of nature are full of calm and worthy of Leonardo da Vinci himself.

Galatea (1880)

Galatea (1880)

Another mythological painting by Gustave Moreau. This time it is based on Ovid’s poem «Metamorphoses» (fable 12) about a love triangle — while Galatea is in love with the shepherd Acis, Cyclops Polyphemus sighs selflessly over her, torn by jealousy.

The author contrasts love and contempt, beauty and ugliness, the struggle between shadow and light, good and evil. However, Gustave’s Polifen is more like a melancholic creature, undead of an evil ogre. nine0005

Claude Monet

Hunting trophy (1862)

Hunting trophy (1862)

Still life was a favorite subject of the artist, especially at the beginning of his career. The composition looks realistic and lively, and letting go of the imagination, it seems as if subtle notes of the aroma of fur, feathers and gunpowder are captured.

Corner of an apartment (1871)

Corner of an apartment (1871)

Living in Argenteuil near Paris from 1871 to 1878, the master often depicted his family, and this one of these works is the elder son Jin, and in the background the figure of his wife is guessed. Even such an ordinary plot attracts attention, forcing you to stop and examine the picture carefully, studying every detail. nine0005

London, Parliament House. The Sun Through the Fog (1904)

London, Houses of Parliament. The sun through the fog (1904)

The famous London fog turns reality into a mirage. Buildings seem to be ghosts, which are either trying to swim out of the haze, or to dissolve into a multi-colored haze.

Édouard Manet

Olympia (1863)

Olympia (1863)

After being presented to the public, this work caused a storm of disapproval, both in the manner of performance and composition. nine0005

Using the idea of ​​depicting a naked Venus, Manet simplified the plot as much as possible, portraying in this role an ordinary prostitute with a defiant look.

In addition, according to critics, the background is poorly chosen here, and because of the strange transitions of white and yellow, the girl was nicknamed «the same-sex jaundice.»

Lunch on the Grass (1963)

Lunch on the Grass (1963)

Offered for exhibition at the Salon in 1863, the painting aroused both indignation and jokes. Although Manet drew his inspiration from Titian and Marcantonio Raimondi, he brought his own boldness to the content. nine0005

However, devoid of a mythological color, in the eyes of the public of that time, she looked very obscene. It’s no joke — one half-naked, and the second completely naked girls, surrounded by dressed men in a clearing in the forest.

Emile Zola (1868)

Emile Zola (1868)

The portrait was the beginning of a true friendship between writer and artist. Emile Zola gave preference to scandalous masters, whose work caused a resonance in society.

On the canvas, he is surrounded by elements that were to his liking, and among them is the painting «Olympia» by Edouard Manet, which at one time was subjected to severe criticism by the censors. nine0005

Georges Lemmen

Beach at Heist (1891)

Beach at Heist (1891)

While still a very young artist, Lemmen came up with an original manner of depicting landscapes and portraits. The round and oval dots, which fit snugly together, allowed him to create separate color zones that blended softly, naturally and smoothly, while not violating each other’s borders.

Pierre Lego

Saint Lawrence, martyr (1874)

Saint Lawrence, Martyr (1874)

Looking at this painting, one involuntarily associates it with the works of Michelangelo. Technique, key points, composition of the scene are made in the Baroque style.

Although the painting was awarded the first Salon Prize in 1874, it was not without criticism — the painter was accused of congestion of the plot, confusion of angles and excessive interweaving of body parts.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Spring (1820 – 1856)

Spring (1820 – 1856)

The painting took 36 years to paint, and in recent years the master was assisted by his students.

The artist managed to create the ideal female beauty.

The stroke of his brush has reached that perfection, when the skin under it seems real, young and velvety, and smooth lines give grace and flexibility to the figure.

The first owner of the canvas was Count Duchatel.

Large plants bordered the canvas in his house, which made the spring nymph really look like a living girl. nine0005

Henri Gervex

Rolla (1878)

Rolla (1878)

The painting caused an uproar and was declared immoral. However, not because of the naked female nature (she was made according to all the canons of that time), but because of the details of the toilet: a dress, a hastily unbuttoned corset, garters, over which lies a black top hat.

According to critics, such an arrangement of clothes means that the young maiden voluntarily entered into a relationship with a man, which emphasizes her status as a prostitute. nine0005

The judges were also outraged by the cane (a phallic symbol) peeping out of a mountain of women’s clothes, which is perceived as a metaphor for sexual intercourse.

Paul Gauguin

Joy (1892)

Joy (1892)

After visiting Tahiti, Gauguin was fascinated by the simple way of life of the local population, and this resulted in a series of paintings. One of them is “Joy”, which depicts a world full of harmony and a person living in close union with nature and God.

However, contrary to the artist’s expectations, the work did not win praise at the exhibition, the Tahitian names annoyed many, and the red dog in the foreground became the subject of sarcasm. nine0005

Leon Frederic

The era of workers (1895 — 1897)

The era of workers (1895 — 1897)

The work is made in the format of a triptych and is full of events. In a huge crowd, everyone is busy with something of their own: a mother is breastfeeding a baby, children are playing, men are busy with manual labor, and in the background you can see a funeral procession as an allegory for the perishability of being, and whatever you do in life, the end for everyone the same.

Henri Fantin-Latour

Night (1897)

Painting Night (1897)

One would like to compare this painting with Wagner’s poetry or music. Smooth lines and a smooth transition of halftones turn it into an illusion, when the image gradually emerges from the fog. Critic Gustave Geffroy wrote: «No woman ever lay so still, in a painted sky shrouded in waves of soft clouds.»

Eugene Delacroix

Tiger hunt (1854)

Tiger hunt (1854)

The painting fully demonstrates the artist’s talent for romanticizing battle scenes. Here you can see the horror of the stallion, the fearlessness of the rider, the aggression of the wild cat. The event is complemented by carefully thought-out clothing details, characters in the background, nature and bright colors.

Edgar Degas

Rehearsal of the ballet on the stage (1874)

Rehearsal of the ballet on the stage (1874)

Although the picture immediately enthralled many, it was long and stubbornly perceived only as a drawing. In contrast to Degas’ later colorful works, here he preferred a monochrome milky tone, accurately conveying all the nuances of lighting, in which white packs stand out especially strongly. nine0005

Ballet class (1871-1874)

Ballet class (1871-1874)

Another painting by the master from behind the scenes of the ballet troupe.

Degas loved to watch the rehearsal, accurately noticing all the nuances, postures and facial expressions of the dancers, which is why his offspring always turned out alive.

In this case, it is clear that the lesson has come to an end, and the students are exhausted.

While the teacher is making the last comments, someone has taken a relaxed posture, someone is adjusting clothes and hair, and someone is reinforcing the lesson with the set movement. nine0005

Thomas Couture

Romans in the Decline (1847)

Romans in the Decline (1847)

A monumental painting on a historical theme. As the author himself said, presenting his work, this is a kind of moral message and the desire to convey human behavior.

Depraved revelers have lost touch with reality during dancing and drunkenness, and it seems that even the statues cast condemning glances at them.

The scene also serves as an allegory for the behavior of French society at that time. So Couture makes it clear that France is undergoing moral decline. nine0005

Gustave Courbet

Artist’s studio (1854-1855)

Artist’s studio (1854-1855) comes to me to paint. » Around him there is poverty and wealth, youth and old age.

Philosophers, workers, artists, merchants, hunters, homeless people are present in the crowd surrounding him, and next to him is the unchanging Muse, inspiring and supporting. nine0005

If for Shakespeare: «The whole world is a theater», then for Gustave Courbet it was a canvas.

Fernand Cormon

Cain (1880)

Cain (1880)

that he was sentenced to eternal wanderings and suffering.

The picture evokes delight and horror, hypnotizes and makes you consider every detail, down to the bloody pieces of meat suspended from a wooden stretcher, on which an exhausted nursing mother sits. nine0005

Paul Cezanne

This French artist was a prominent representative of post-impressionism. He left behind over 800 oil paintings, as well as many watercolors and sketches.

No one has yet been able to accurately calculate the total number of his works, because even the painter himself did not know this. After triumphing at the exhibitions at the Salon of 1904, Cezanne became a cult artist.

The Musee d’Orsay presents 20 of his creations, including the master’s favorite landscapes, still lifes and famous portraits:

  • Country Road Overs (1872-1873)
  • Bridge (1879)
  • Portrait of Mrs. Cezanne (1885-1890)
  • Bathers (1894) 904 players (1890–1895)
  • Still life with bow (1896–1898)

Jean-Baptiste Carpeau

Costume ball at the Tuileries (1867) 1867)

Sketch painting in bold broad strokes. The innovative brushwork perfectly captures the atmosphere of a lavish celebration, but leaves room for reflection. nine0005

Some figures are clearly guessed, for example, Napoleon III, but as for the lady next to him, one can only assume that this is the Empress Eugenie, and not his famous mistress Countess Castiglione.

Alexander Cabanel

The Birth of Venus (1863)

The Birth of Venus (1863)

The topic of mythology, popular in the 19th century, was also close to Cabanel, a representative of academicism. The picture is a classic example of the famous epic, the appearance of Venus from the foam of the sea. nine0005

William Bouguereau

Sturm (1898)

Sturm (1898)

The creation brought its author a commercial success, especially appreciated in America.

The girl was surrounded by cherubs, which symbolizes the awakening of romantic feelings.

Pierre Bonnard

White cat (1894)

White cat (1894)

The artist often depicted cats. Sometimes they were a barely noticeable part of the events, sometimes the central figure, as in this case. The body of the animal looks comical and caricatured, but in fact, Bonnard carefully thought out the location of each part of the body and changed the position of the paws several times, which is confirmed by numerous sketches and x-rays of the picture. nine0005

Jacques-Émile Blanche

Halévy family (1903)

Halévy family (1903)

Blanche was one of the most beloved artists in intellectual and capitalist circles. The interior of the room reflects the traditional setting of the bourgeois living room, where characters and furniture are connected together.

Leon Belli

Pilgrims go to Mecca (1861)

Pilgrims go to Mecca (1861)

Exhibited at the Salon in 1861, she received the highest medal and was recognized as a masterpiece of painting in the East. nine0005

The slightly separated figures of a man, a woman and a child on a donkey are reminiscent of the “flight into Egypt” motif of Joseph, Jesus and Mary. So the artist speaks about the universality of religion, and that in fact God is one for all.

Frédéric Bazille

Improvised field hospital (1865)

Improvised field hospital (1865)

The scene shows Claude Monet after his injury. Frederic came to help a friend in a difficult period for him. Since Basil studied medicine before his passion for painting, he built a support structure for a sore leg, and then captured it on canvas. nine0005

Family reunion (1867)

Family reunion (1867)

A touching painting depicting members of the artist’s family during their holidays in Merik. Initially, small dogs frolicked next to people, but later the master replaced them with an artificial still life.

James Abbott McNeil Whistler

Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (1871)

Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (1871)

The painter’s most famous painting. This is a symbol of the «cult of the mother», as well as a play of black and gray tones, similar to how it happens in films and cartoons. The author himself compared his canvases with musical compositions, calling them «symphonies» and «nocturnes». nine0005

Many viewers recognize the portrait thanks to the movie «Mr. Bean», but this is not the only time he was beaten in cinema. In the film «The Excitement of Fortune» a reproduction can be seen in the main character’s room.

Also in the Addams Family Values, a very similar picture hangs in the house. The portrait flashes several times in the animated series «The Simpsons», and one of the characters in the film «The Naked Gun 1/2» has a birthmark, identical to the silhouette of the figure of Winster’s mother.

Practical information

Opening hours and tickets to the Musée d’Orsay:

  • Tuesday-Wednesday, Friday-Sunday 9:30-18:00.
  • Thursday 9:30–21:45.
  • Ticket offices close one hour earlier.
  • 1 May, 25 December and all Mondays are closed.
  • Tickets can be bought at the box office or online. The cost is 14 euros. The first Sunday of the month is free admission.

Musée d’Orsay: 1 Rue de la Légion d’Honneur. nine0015 Official website:

Musée d’Orsay paintings (photo)

Famous paintings of the Musée d’Orsay in Paris

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1 Read also: 1 how to get to the Louvre quickly and without a queue

Read also: All about the Rodin Museum in Paris: how to get there, photo and address

Author: Laura Moore

Do not miss the museum! In terms of the richness of its collections, the Nissim de Camondo Museum is hardly inferior to the most prominent museums in France

Culture and customs   Notable


January 11, 2021  © AveFrance

There are various museums in Paris. In large, world-famous, there are queues. These are mostly tourists. And there are museums that tourists rarely go to: museums that are quiet and peaceful. Yes, and the Parisians do not create queues there. But that makes them even more interesting.

This includes the Nissim de Camondo Museum. It is located in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, next to the Parc Monceau, and it contains a rich collection of 18th century objects. nine0005

At the beginning of the 20th century, Moise de Camondo inherited a mansion in the Monceau Park area. He was a Parisian banker who received the title of count. Fascinated by the 18th century, he collected furniture and works of art. Having already collected a fairly significant collection, the count decided to transform his mansion, and turned to the architect Rene Sergent for help.

Being inspired by the Petit Trianon of Versailles, Sergeant practically transferred his view to the Camondo mansion. The facade of the building consists of three floors, each of which has a specific purpose. The lowest floor served as a kitchen, the second — rooms for receiving guests, and the last — private apartments of the owners. Mansion built in 1911-1914, was perfectly adapted to the comfort standards of the beginning of the last century. At present, the mansion has retained the same appearance as at the beginning of the 20th century.

This three-storey building housed the Count’s luxurious exposition, later named after Nissim’s beloved son, a military pilot who died in 1917 at the age of 25. After the death of his son, Moise decided to donate the collected collection to the French people. His daughter Beatrice carried out the will of her father after his death, and on December 21, 1936 years, the house-museum named after Nissim de Camondo opened.

The building and all the wealth of the museum was bequeathed to the Union of Decorative Arts, and the state adequately preserved and increased the collection.

Beatrice de Camondo’s daughter was executed in the gas chamber at Auschwitz on January 4, 1945, just a couple of weeks before the Soviet troops liberated the camp. In the same place, Leon Reinach, her ex-husband, and their children perished in November 1943.

In terms of the richness of its collections, the Nissim de Camondo Museum is hardly inferior to the most prominent museums in France. The luxury of the interiors is amazing — a marble staircase with balustrades, beautiful sculptures and figurines, magnificent tapestries and carpets, crystal candelabra, fine porcelain, antique furniture, salon chairs of the best masters of the 17th-18th centuries. nine0005

The Nissima de Camondo Museum, dedicated to the French decorative arts of the second half of the eighteenth century, exhibits some of the finest pieces of furniture and objects from the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI.

There are practically no tourists in this museum, or maybe it was during my visit. On all three floors I met two or three people. The impression from this museum remains the most pleasant.

You can get there by metro: Monceau station. Or you can walk from Gare Saint-Lazare. This is if you are not in a hurry and want to walk the streets of Paris, which tourists do not particularly go through. The walk is not so long, about 20 minutes. The metro station is also not near the museum. And not a single bus passes by him. nine0005

But the museum will definitely please you.

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