Which african country has spanish as an official language: ABOUT EQUATORIAL GUINEA | Equatorial Guinea Embassy USA

Spanish Speaking Countries In Africa | The Spanish Language

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On November 10, 2020   /   Certified Translation  

This post was last updated on February 5th, 2022 at 01:13 pm

The Spanish Language:

When the Romans came to the Iberian Peninsula, they introduced the natives to their language Latin. But after the fall of the Roman Empire, Latin slowly began to fade. However, it did not go out of use completely. The most popular European vernaculars of today are the daughter languages of Latin. They are known as Romance languages and are primarily spoken in South America, Central Africa, and Europe. Out of all of these languages, Spanish is the most spoken tongue. It has nearly 600 million speakers in the world. It spread to different parts of the world because of colonization. Today, the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the Americas form the region known as Latin America. Spanish is also one of the most spoken languages in the United States. It is the official language of more than twenty countries.

The majority of native speakers of Spanish live in Latin America. The second-highest number of Spanish native speakers can be found in the European Union. This makes people wonder if the language is spoken on other continents too. Indo-European languages are indeed spoken all over the world. But not all of the family members can be found on every continent. However, there are a few languages that are spoken on every continent of the world.

Romance languages are spoken in multiple countries in Europe. In total, they have nearly a billion native speakers. Some of them are also spoken in a few countries in Asia. But the vast majority of their speakers cannot be found in Asia or Africa.

What are the Spanish Speaking Countries in Africa?

Africa is the second-largest continent. It is home to 1.2 billion people who speak different languages and practice various cultures. Africa is also the place where the earliest humans lived. Some of the world’s oldest languages originated in Africa. Various indigenous languages are spoken on this continent. However, some African languages have gone extinct due to the popularity of foreign languages like English and French. So, are there any Spanish-speaking countries in Africa? The answer is yes, there are. Spanish is spoken in parts of Western Sahara. There are also small Spanish-speaking communities in the northern parts of Morocco. However, there is only one country in Africa where Spanish is recognized as an official language.

Equatorial Guinea:

The only sovereign state in the African continent where Spanish is recognized as an official language; is Equatorial Guinea. This variety of Spanish is known as Equatoguinean Spanish. It also appears on the list of French-speaking countries because French is also one of the official languages in Equatorial Guinea. But it is only a minority language in the country. In the city of Malabo, the capital of Equatorial Guinea, everyone speaks Spanish as their native language. Overall, 67% of the country’s population can speak the language. The country was ruled by European powers in the past including the Portuguese and the Spaniards.

In 2010, Portuguese was also added to the constitution as one of the official languages of Equatorial Guinea. The country has had close historical ties with Portugal. The promotion of Portuguese was made in an attempt to establish strong relationships with other Portuguese-speaking countries of the continent. Despite the recognition of other languages in the constitution, Spanish continues to be the language of education.

Equatorial Guinea’s primary language is Spanish but various aboriginal and indigenous languages are also spoken in the country. Fang in Equatorial Guinea is the most popular ethnic group. Bobi, Igbo, and Ndowe are other popular ethnic groups.

Río Muni is the mainland region in Equatorial Region. Río Muni is bordered by Cameroon and Gabon. Malabo, the capital city is located on Bioko Island. Bioko Island is home to a few indigenous communities. The biggest problems that this African country faces today are human trafficking and forced child labor. Although the Gross Domestic Product shows that Equatorial Guinea is a rich country, wealth is unevenly divided between its population. The government of the country is authoritarian and does not make any efforts to protect the rights of its citizens. Human development has been on the decline for decades. Things improved under the rule of President Obiang when the illiteracy rate dropped in Equatorial Guinea. But the country continues to have the worst human rights records in the world.

The Languages of Africa:

Africa is known all over the world as the home to some of the world’s ancient civilizations and languages. It is the place where various indigenous languages are still thriving. In some countries of the continent, only native tongues are recognized as national languages, as compared to Latin American and English-speaking countries where the primary languages of natives ended up going extinct.

Modern Standard Arabic is spoken in at least 13 Central African and Sub-Saharan African countries. Moroccan Arabic is the most popular variety of Arabic spoken in Africa. In Western Sahara, Hassaniya Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. The Modern Standard Arabic of the Middle East is a bit different from the Hassaniya Arabic and Moroccan Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic is the mother tongue of all the Arab population including the people of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. It is also the language of government all over the Arab world.

Numerous Bantu languages are also spoken in 27 African countries including Nigeria, Somalia, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. They are the national languages of all the countries where Bantu people make up the majority. Various creole languages are also spoken in West Africa. The national culture of every country, as well as their national languages, are all influenced by various factors. No language in Africa has not been influenced by aboriginal vernaculars of the region.

Equatorial Guinea:

Equatorial Guinea is a country in Central Africa that consists of 5 offshore volcanic islands and Rio Muni Mainland. It has a culturally rich and diverse history owing to the various ethnic rules that persisted for centuries. The Spanish rule was the longest in the country. Equatorial Guinea came out of Spanish rule and colonial authorities and gained independence under Francisco Macias Nguema, only in the late 20th century. The country’s current president is the nephew of Macias Nguema, Teodoro Obiang Nguema.

Spanish is the national language of the country. Portuguese and French are also the official languages here. Sadly, the country’s economic development was always restricted one way or the other. Even though Equatorial Guinea has become the third-largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa, it hasn’t gotten the place in the world that it deserved. This is the reason why most people have heard the names like Cape Town and Johannesburg but not Malabo and Bata.

What’s even worse, is the fact that human rights abuses are common. And despite Human Rights Watch’s indications of false play and dictatorship in the country, nothing has changed. Progress and economic development still seem like a dream to the natives.

Spanish-speaking country in Africa capital?

Equatorial Guinea. Yes, Equatorial Guinea is the only Spanish-speaking country in Africa. Equatorial Guinea’s capital city is Malabo.

How many countries speak Spanish in Africa?

It may come as a surprise to you but there is only one Spanish-speaking country in Africa, and that is Equatorial Guinea.

What are the African colonies of Spain?

Colonial Spanish Africa comprises North Morocco, Ifni, the Tarfaya region, Western Sahara, and the territories of early-21st-century Equatorial Guinea.

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4 Unexpected Countries That Speak Spanish • Ad Astra, Inc

Spanish is the 3rd most spoken language, following behind English and French. There is an estimate stating that 572 million people speak Spanish all over the world! It is also the 2nd most studied language in the world. So if it wasn’t clear before, Spanish is of great importance for many people to communicate through various forms of news, literature, art and beyond!

Some more fun facts about the Spanish language are that 21 countries have Spanish as their native language. That’s pretty impressive! 9 of these countries are located in South America alone. Spanish is spoken worldwide in many different countries because of periods of migration and colonization.

Additionally, it is also spoken a lot by people communicating via the internet. It gets ranked as the third language most used on the internet today.

How Spanish Came to be so Widespread

Spanish is derived from spoken Latin and is home to innumerable dialects. This is due to Spanish being influenced by other languages. The following countries either have Spanish as their official language or are countries with many Spanish speakers. Their Spanish is all based on their own nuances and can slightly differ depending on the country and state.

That so many countries in South America speak Spanish doesn’t really come as a surprise though. There are some countries that you probably won’t expect speak Spanish either as an official language or as a 2nd language. Want to know which countries we’re talking about? Let’s dive into these unexpected Spanish-speaking countries below!

1. Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea is a country in Africa. People often don’t know that this country’s official language is Spanish. Equatorial Guinea is not the closest African country to Spain, but it is the only African country that communicates using the Spanish language.

Spain invaded this particular country in the 1700-the 1800s. Approximately 67.7% of the population in Equatorial Guinea speaks Spanish. Mainly people living in the capital, Malabo, use this language as their main language.

2. Philippines

When we think of the Philippines’ many different islands, we think of their the blue oceans and spicy food. Even though the native language of the Philippines is Filipino, there are also lots of Spanish speakers.

This is due to it being an official language until 1987. The Philippines was part of the Spanish West Indies at that time. After thirty years, the Philippine government wanted schools to start teaching Spanish again. So, as of 2009 Spanish is again being taught in schools.

The government finds it an important language to learn because Spanish is spoken in many countries worldwide. The Philippines is proudly multilingual, as more than 120 different languages get spoken there.

3. North America

That there are Spanish-speaking people in North America is probably not a shock to many…but we had to put this one on the list. The crazy thing is that North America is third on the list of the most Spanish-speaking people in the world!

Even though English is the official language of North America, approximately 37 million people speak Spanish there too. The amount of people speaking the Spanish language in this part of the world has grown exponentially since 1980 with 233%. In the 1980s, 11 million Spanish-speaking people lived in North America.

There are so many Spanish-speaking people partly due to colonization in the 1750s and Mexico’s close connection. It is still vastly growing due to the number of immigrants leaving South America to hopefully find a better life in North America for themselves and their families. People are saying that Spanish will become the second official language in North America in the future.

Hopefully this will encourage some much needed and healthy multilingualism in the US.

4. Western Sahara

Africa is a continent that includes many different countries! One of them is Western Sahara. It lies on the West Coast of Africa.

Like Equatorial Guinea, it was colonized by Spain in the 1800s. Unlike the country mentioned before, this one has chosen not to continue Spanish as the official language. Nowadays, people often speak Arabic and French in Western Sahara. Both languages are the official language in this part of the world.

80% of Western Sahara was occupied by Morocco and the remaining 20% by the Arabic Democratic Republic. If you can speak Spanish, you can most likely still put your language skills to the test when you visit Western Sahara, as there are still many who speak Spanish there.

Papiamento, the Spanish Creole

Spanish knows many nuances and dialects depending on where it gets spoken in the world. Papiamento is a Portuguese and Spanish-based creole language spoken especially in the Dutch Caribbean.

It is even the official language in Aruba and Curacao. This language is a combination of words from different languages. Spanish has a big influence on this language together with Portuguese. If you speak or understand both Portuguese and Spanish, you will most likely understand and speak this unique language without issue. Approximately 330,000 people speak Papiamento.

This is again another interesting example of colonial invasion influence from 1800 to the 1900s.

Some Last thoughts

Spanish is a truly beautiful language. Speaking this particular language can help when you need to communicate with people from different parts of the world. At Ad Astra, we tackle our Spanish translation and interpretation work with nuance and care.

There are so many variations depending on where it gets spoken or taught. If you are looking for a company that cares about the language, what is being said and intended by the speaker or writer, we’re your best choice.

We hope you learned something special about unexpected Spanish speaking countries!


SpanishThe more you know

RIAC :: Spanish: Two Projections of the Same Phenomenon

The active use of the “soft power” tool allowed Spain to take the lead in relations with the countries of the Latin American region. The presentation of the language, cultural heritage and modern achievements of the country creates a new platform for the promotion of Spanish products, promotes the recognition of its global brands and allows you to implement new approaches in foreign policy.

In today’s world, Spanish is one of the most widely spoken European languages. Its territorial expansion began in 1492 with the discovery and subsequent conquest of Central and South America. In the linguistic projection, the result of the confrontation between the leading maritime powers of that time was the spread of Hispanophony and Lusophony in the Western Hemisphere on the lands in the region and south of the equator. In the Spanish colonies of the New World, the language of the metropolis became official, displacing the local Indian dialects. By the period of gaining independence by these countries in the first quarter of the XIX century. Spanish became the main language not only for the Creole elite, but also for the majority of the population. nine0003

Spanish is now spoken by more than 495 million people for whom it is their first, second or foreign language. It ranks second in the world in terms of the number of speakers after Chinese and second after English as the language of international communication [1]. Spanish as a foreign language is studied by 18 million people, and their number is increasing by 8% per year [2]. The vast majority of Hispanic speakers live outside of Europe, these are residents of the countries of Latin Caribbean America, as well as Equatorial Guinea. According to this indicator, Spain itself ranks third in the world (46.704 million people), behind Mexico (113.591 million) and Colombia (47.093 million) [3]. According to demographic trends, the spread of the language will continue, and by 2030 Spanish will be spoken by 7.5% of the world’s population. At the same time, it is highly likely that in 2050 the United States will become the country with the largest Hispanic population in the world [4].

Strategic Opportunities for Transatlantic Engagement

Spanish is the official language of organizations such as the Organization of American States (OAS), the Union of South American Nations (Unasur), the Common Market of South America (Mercosur), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Community of Latin America and the Caribbean basin (CELAC), in the Iberoamerican Community of Nations (ICN), as well as in the European Union (EU). nine0003

If in the Western Hemisphere Spanish was a natural environment for international relations and regional integration processes, then for Spain itself, turning to such an instrument of «soft power» (poder blando) has become one of the ways to transform the country’s role in the global world.

Photo: lrc.salemstate.edu
Spanish in the world

The processes of democratic transition and economic development of the post-Franco period have significantly changed the structure of Spain’s interests and opportunities on the world stage. Positioning the country as a “middle power with global interests” [5] required the development of a multi-regional approach in foreign policy. This contributed to the creation in 1991 year of the Iberoamerican Community of Nations (ICN) — an interregional association of countries that are similar in historical and cultural parameters. Its goal was to coordinate humanitarian and cultural development, economic interaction and foreign policy cooperation. Every year, within the ISN, meetings of heads of state and government (Cumbre Iberoamericana) are held [6].

The work experience of the ISN allowed us to take a fresh look at the possibilities of economic and foreign policy cooperation between countries united by a common history and cultural and civilizational code [7]. Early 19In the 1990s, during the neoliberal reforms, the economies of the countries of the Latin American region opened up to foreign investment. The language advantage contributed to the active entry of Spanish corporations into new markets: 61% of direct Spanish investments fell on Latin American countries [8]. Even during the crisis period of 2009-2011, Spain remained the third country in terms of foreign direct investment in the region [9]. The successful work of Spanish corporations in Latin America allowed them to mitigate the losses from the stagnation of the economy of their country. The development of the ISN contributed to the diversification of the forms of economic cooperation and foreign policy partnership of the countries of the association. nine0003

Spain — cultural policy in action

The vast majority of Hispanic speakers live outside of Europe, these are residents of the countries of Latin Caribbean America, as well as

Given that more than 20 states are included in the Hispanophone space (Spain, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, El Salvador, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, Equatorial Guinea), Spain is the locomotive of its popularization in the world. Gradually, a complex of institutions was built up, aiming to form a new image of the country, expanding the boundaries of foreign policy and economic influence through the promotion of the Spanish language and culture. nine0003

The Instituto Cervantes, established in 1991, is the structural basis of this policy and the King of Spain Juan Carlos is the honorary chairman of its Board of Trustees. The aim of the institute is to develop language training programs, promote Spanish and Spanish American culture, support research in Spain and the cultural aspects of the Spanish American space. The Institute has offices on five continents in 43 countries. Their geography demonstrates the main vectors of Spanish politics: the leader is the European region, where 37 representative offices are open (five of them in Germany, four each in France and Italy, three in the UK). The Cervantes Institute also operates in the countries of North and West Africa (12 centers are located there, of which six are in Morocco), has four representative offices in the countries of the Middle East and ten in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Work is actively developing in the countries of the Western Hemisphere — five centers have been opened in the USA, one in Canada. Eight centers have been established in Brazil, a record number for a single country [10]. nine0003

Photo: wikimedia.org
Structural basis of Spanish
cultural policy is
Instituto Cervantes

The activities of organizations that promote the modern image of the country are very diverse. The expert work of the Royal Elcano Institute (Real Instituto Elcano, RIE, founded in 2001) is focused on studying the interests of Spain in the international community. This research organization has become an independent platform for analysis and discussion on international issues of our time and, above all, the role of Spain in them [11]. In 2000, the Carolina Fund (Fundación Carolina) was established, whose work is aimed at developing cultural ties, cooperation in the educational and scientific fields between Spain and members of the ISN, as well as with countries with which Spain has developed special historical, cultural or geographical relationship. The Foundation plays a connecting role between academic institutions, research centers, large firms, government and public organizations in the field of culture, education, science and technology [12]. The Acción Cultural Española (AC/E) [13], founded in 2012, faces ambitious tasks. Its goal is to spread Spanish culture inside and outside the country, as well as to promote the «Spanish brand» (Marca España) — a long-term public policy aimed at shaping the image of Spain abroad in the economic, cultural, social, scientific and technological fields. nine0003

The expansion of the cultural space, the support of educational programs is becoming one of the important elements of the strategy for the entry of leading Spanish corporations into new markets. An example is the bank «Santander» (Santander) — the basis of the largest credit and financial group of the same name in Spain. It implements the international project «Santander Universities» [15]. From the Russian side, eight leading universities participate in it, the agreement covers various areas of cooperation, but they have an invariable component — the promotion of education in Spanish, the creation of centers and departments of the Spanish language and the development of the study of Spain [16]. nine0003

Despite the fact that more than 20 states are included in the space of Hispanophony, it is Spain that is the locomotive of its popularization in the world. Gradually, a complex of institutions was built up, aiming to form a new image of the country, expanding the boundaries of foreign policy and economic influence through the promotion of the Spanish language and culture.

An important part of this policy is the preservation, maintenance and development of modern language standards. The decisive role is played by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (Real Academia Española, RAE), founded in 1713 with the aim of preserving the lexemes and sound of the Castilian language in their highest «elegance and purity» [17]. The work of the academy is aimed at the formation of the linguistic and literary norm of the Spanish language, it publishes the Dictionary of the Spanish Language and other works. The study of the living language, its development, general and regional transformations, is the core of joint work with the 1951 by the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española), which unites 21 academies from Latin America, as well as the Philippines, Puerto Rico and the USA [18]. Many Spanish and Latin American writers contribute to the popularization of the language, among them the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature winner Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia, «One Hundred Years of Solitude», «Autumn of the Patriarch»), Arturo Perez-Reverte (Spain, the cycle «The Adventures of a Captain Alatriste», «Flemish Board»), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru, «City and Dogs», «Leaders»), Isabel Allende (Chile, «House of Spirits»). nine0003

Thus, starting from the idea of ​​promoting language and culture, Spain is building a complex system of institutions based on elements of «soft power».

American Space of Language Expansion

In today’s world, the Spanish language is not only an instrument of «soft power» of a particular state. Being one of the basic elements of Latin American civilization, it begins to play an important role in the transformation of the cultural and linguistic space of the Western Hemisphere. This is especially evident in its expansion in the United States. nine0003

The mass migration of Hispanics to the United States has led to the fact that Spanish is gradually becoming an official language in the Southwestern states. Thus, bilingualism is officially established in California [19], in New Mexico it has equal rights along with English, and in Texas state institutions are required to publish official documents in two languages. The growth of the Hispanic population in the United States has a serious impact on domestic politics, bringing to the agenda not only the issue of reform of migration laws, but also the search for effective forms of interaction with these social groups with growing economic and political influence. In the political elite of the United States, knowledge of Spanish is beginning to be perceived as the norm. So, ex-president George W. Bush and his brother Jeb Bush, the former governor of Florida, speak Spanish fluently. The objective trend towards expanding the area of ​​Hispanophony in the United States also motivates the Cervantes Institute to work actively in promoting the language and the Spanish cultural heritage in the North American country [20]. nine0003

In today’s world, Spanish is not only a tool of the «soft power» of a particular state. Being one of the basic elements of Latin American civilization, it begins to play an important role in the transformation of the cultural and linguistic space of the Western Hemisphere. This is especially evident in its expansion in the United States.

A similar manifestation of the geographical expansion of the Spanish language is its penetration into the territory of Brazil. Despite the fact that this country is quite zealous about preserving its version of the Portuguese language, the development of integration processes on the continent, active economic ties within the Ibero-American community stimulate the use of Spanish. Since 2005, it has been introduced as the first foreign language in Brazilian schools [21], which confirms the importance of relations with the Spanish-speaking countries of the region and the world. nine0003

The natural result of the contact of languages ​​was the appearance of their mixed variants. In the area of ​​the Mexican-American border, a variant of Spanglish (spanglish), a mixture of Spanish and English, has emerged, and in the Brazilian border territories, the use of portuñol (portuñol), a Portuguese-Spanish hybrid, has been observed.

Spanish is the leading business language in Latin America. However, one should not expect its global competition with English in the short term. This is explained not only by the universal tradition of using the English language, but also by the peculiarities of the Ibero-American culture, which its representatives themselves consider, if not peripheral, then remote from the Anglo-American. nine0003

Nevertheless, Spanish is expanding its presence and status in the Western Hemisphere. While maintaining current demographic trends, as well as subject to the dynamic growth of the economies of the countries of the region, this may lead to a change in its position as the language of international business communication.

Spanish in Russia

Photo: www. facebook.com/CervantesMoscu/
Representative office of the Institute
Cervantes in Moscow

Interest in the Spanish language began to form during the Soviet period, the starting point was the Soviet participation in the Spanish Civil War. Over time, specialized departments for the study of Spanish began to open, at 1945, his teaching began at the Romano-Germanic department of the Faculty of Philology of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, and then in other universities of the country. In 1973, in-depth study of the Spanish language began at school No. 82 (now No. 1252), this was the first experience in the framework of the secondary education system, in 1997 the school was named after Cervantes. Specialized courses were opened at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Moscow State Linguistic University, and the Diplomatic Academy.

With the opening in 2002 of the representative office of the Instituto Cervantes, a new stage in the popularization of Spanish culture and language teaching in Russia began. Acting as a Spanish cultural center, the Cervantes Institute regularly holds thematic seminars, round tables, and lecture courses on literature, music, history and other areas of Spanish and Latin American culture. The practice of his work included the acquaintance of Russian viewers with the cinema of the Ibero-American countries. Thematic exhibitions, presentations of books by Russian researchers of the region are held. In addition, Catalan is taught, as well as Russian as a foreign language. Examinations are regularly held for obtaining the DELE (Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera) — an official document recognizing the level of knowledge and proficiency in Spanish, which is issued by the Cervantes Institute on behalf of the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Every year, about 5 thousand people study within the walls of the Moscow representative office of the institute, since the 2002-2003 academic year their number has doubled [22]. nine0003

Currently, there are 45 centers for learning Spanish in Russia, 16 of them in Moscow, eight in St. Petersburg [23]. But, despite the growing interest, in comparison with other foreign languages, its position remains very modest. It is studied by only 0.62% of the total number of pupils and students. Thus, in the system of secondary and higher education, Spanish remains far behind English (77.6%), German (17.5%) and French (4.2%). At the same time, it competes with Italian and the growing popularity of Chinese. Spanish is also included in the list of USE languages ​​[24]. nine0003

The development of Russia’s economic and trade relations with the countries of the Spanish-speaking area, coupled with their cultural and tourist attractiveness, suggests that interest in learning Spanish will gradually increase. It has an important universal property — it makes it possible to get acquainted with the history and culture of the countries of the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America that are absolutely different from each other.

Spain itself, the active use of this tool of «soft power» has allowed it to take a leadership position in relations with the countries of the Latin American region. The presentation of the language, cultural heritage and modern achievements of the country creates a new platform for the promotion of Spanish products, promotes the recognition of its global brands and allows you to implement new approaches in foreign policy. nine0003

1. El español: una lengua viva. Informe 2012. — Instituto Cervantes. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

2. El español: una lengua viva. Informe 2012. — Instituto Cervantes. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

3. CEPAL. Anuario Estadístico de América Latino y el Caribe. 2012. — CEPAL. – http://www.eclac.org ; Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. – www.ine.es

4. El español: una lengua viva. Informe 2012. — Instituto Cervantes. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

5. Yakovlev P.P. Spain: a period of economic crisis and political trials. – M.: ILA RAN, 2009. S. 54

6. Secretaria General Iberoamericana. — www.segib.org

7. Yakovlev P.P. Iberoamerican community of nations: results of twenty years. -www.perspektivy.info/oykumena/ekdom/iberoamerikanskoje_soobshhestvo_nacij_itogi_dvadcatiletija_2010-12-23.htm

8. Yakovlev P.P. Spain in world politics. – M.: ILA RAN, 2011. P.103.

nine0002 9. La inversion extranjera directa en América Latina y el Caribe. – Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, 2013. P. 41.

10. Instituto Cervantes. — http://www.cervantes.es

11. Real Instituto Elcano. — www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal

12. Fundación Carolina. — www.fundacioncarolina.es/es-ES/fc/presentacion/Paginas/presentacion.aspx

13. Accion Cultural Española. — www.accioncultural.es/

14. Marca España. — http://marcaespana.es/

15. Grupo Santander. — www.santander.com

16. El español en el mundo. Anuario del Instituto Cervantes, 2009. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

17. Real Academia Española. — www.rae.es

18. Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española. www.rae.es

19. The Dymally-Alatorre Bilingual Services Act, 1973.

20. Enciclopedia del español en Estados Unidos. – Instituto Cervantes, 2008. P. 21.

nine0002 21. www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2005/Lei/L11161.htm

22. El español en el mundo. Anuario del Instituto Cervantes, 2009. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

23. El español en el mundo. Anuario del Instituto Cervantes, 2009. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

4. El español en el mundo. Anuario del Instituto Cervantes, 2009. — http://cvc.cervantes.es

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Our company provides a full range of services for the apostille of documents for Spain. Some citizens of our country go to
Spain in search of a job or to continue their studies. In order to continue their studies or get a job in their specialty,
you need to go through a procedure to confirm your qualifications, which is called Homologacion de Titulo.
Read more about it here

Our legal translators from Spanish are experienced and highly qualified.

Medical translation from Spanish

The Spanish healthcare system is considered one of the best in the world.

It is here that many world-famous medical research institutes are located. Many Russians prefer to undergo treatment in Spanish clinics. Spanish medicines are widely used all over the world. Therefore, it is not surprising that medical translation from Spanish into Russian and translation from Russian into Spanish is very popular in our country. We provide translation from Spanish into Russian and translation from Russian into Spanish of the following types of documents:

Medical translation requires translators to pay more attention and knowledge of this subject.

Our translators are specialists who have knowledge of medical terminology and have been engaged in this type of activity for
long time. We translate texts on medical subjects of any level of complexity.

Literary translation from Spanish

Spanish literature can be proud of a large number of great writers: Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon, Alarcon, and others. Literary translation of Spanish literature is in great demand all over the world.

In addition to fiction, literary translation includes the translation of magazine articles, promotional materials, travel brochures, letters, etc.

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