Five digit zip code: Papers of H. Bentley Hahn: The Man Who Invented the 5-Digit ZIP Code – The JFK Library Archives: An Inside Look

Papers of H. Bentley Hahn: The Man Who Invented the 5-Digit ZIP Code – The JFK Library Archives: An Inside Look

(This post was published on our previous blog on 5/15/2015.)

By Lauren Wallace, Former Graduate Student Intern (Simmons University)

[The following post has been republished to mark the 58th anniversary of the U.S. Postal Service’s five-digit ZIP Code system, which was instituted on July 1, 1963.]

We are pleased to announce that the H. Bentley Hahn Personal Papers collection is fully digitized and available on our website.

The digitization of the H. Bentley Hahn Personal Papers was part of my final capstone internship for my Masters degree in Library and Information Science and Archives Management at Simmons College. It was exciting, yet challenging, to apply the skills I had learned over the course of my degree. In digitizing this collection, what struck me was the simplicity of a program that we now take for granted and how it completely revolutionized the U. S. Postal Service. The story of the ZIP Code and of the Mr. ZIP marketing campaign provides insight into a rapidly-changing postal system. In working with H. Bentley Hahn’s papers, I discovered a small snapshot of history that I would have never seen otherwise and I am excited to be able to share it with others.

HBHPP-001-029-p0013. Photograph of H. Bentley Hahn at the ZIP Code Symposium in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 16 March 1965. View the rest of the folder here.

Henry Bentley Hahn, Sr. was born on March 14, 1910 in Beaumont, Jefferson Co., Texas and served in the United States Air Force from 1942-1946. Upon his return Hahn became a postal inspector for the United States Post Office Department. It was the work he performed in this position for which he is best remembered.

In 1961, the volume of magazine and circular mail bundles in the United States averaged 43 million pieces per week, with a total of about 30 billion pieces annually. [1] The U.S. Post Office was still dealing with the loss of many trained employees from World War II and did not have the necessary resources to increase the specialized training required to handle this amount of mail. With mass mail marketing campaigns and magazine circulation on the rise, the U.S. Post Office was searching for ways to manage the exponentially increasing load more effectively.

After spending six years evaluating the operations of the field postal service, Hahn submitted a report entitled, “Proposed Reorganization of the Field Postal Service” (1953) to the Inspector in Charge, C. C. Garner, as a solution to the developing mail problem. This proposal would later contribute to the, “Zone Improvement Plan,” establishing the five-digit ZIP Code.[2] The first three digits of the ZIP code were invented by Robert A. Moon, who came up with a system for dividing the country into approximately 900 geographical areas. Eventually, H. Bentley Hahn contributed the fourth and fifth digits, which added further precision to geographic locales. The five-digit ZIP code plan was announced to the public on November 28, 1962 and implemented on July 1, 1963.

(Below) The first three slides from Hahn’s presentation and the transcript to “Technical Explanation of Post Office Department’s Proposed ‘Zip Code’ Program for the Postal System. ” The presentation was delivered following the official announcement by the Postmaster General in November 1962. View the rest of the presentation slides, here. View the rest of the speech here.


Series of ZIP Code marketing presentation slides, November 1962. View the rest of folder here. Please credit: United States. Post Office Department. H. Bentley Hahn Personal Papers. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

HBHPP-001-022-p0007. “Technical Explanation of Post Office Department’s Proposed ‘ZIP Code’ Program for the Postal System,” 28 November 1962. View the rest of the folder here.

The ZIP Code plan created a hierarchy based on national region, sub-region, post office, and delivery station.[3] Using the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library ZIP Code as an example (02125), the region is 0, sub-region is 2, post office is 1, and delivery station is 25. As found in trial areas, the new ZIP Code eased the sorting process by removing delivery steps and effectively utilizing electronic data processing equipment in the pre-sorting of mail. This approach ultimately led to a decrease in cost and delivery time.[4]

HBHPP-001-026-p0007. Mr. ZIP, the United States Post Office Department mascot, promoting and explaining the new ZIP Code system. View the rest of the folder here.HBHPP-001-032-p0001. Memorandum from James F. Kelleher, Special Assistant to the Postmaster General, to all Postmasters at Cities Formerly Zoned and Cities Newly Zoned, 29 April 1963. The memorandum mandated that Postmasters “immediately launch a saturation campaign to fully inform the residents” of their respective cities. View the rest of the folder here.

In order to implement the new program successfully, the U.S. Post Office set out to create an effective, mass marketing campaign. However, due to the limited time frame between the program’s official public announcement and its expected implementation, a majority of the campaign efforts was left to the regional and local post offices, some of which only received two months notification prior to the July 1,1963 implementation date.

To accomplish this ambitious goal, regional and local post offices were utilized to saturate the community with information. The U.S. Post Office mandated that the campaign inform residents on how to use the ZIP Code, when to start, and why the change was necessary.[5] With a “tremendous job to do and a very short time in which to do it,” local post offices were entrusted with promoting and informing their residents in a very short period of time.[6]

Shortly afterward, reports of success started to come in from the regional postmasters, with minor issues to be addressed. Despite these issues, the ZIP Code was considered by the U.S. Post Office to be a huge success. Some counties saved as much as $10,000 per year, speeding up delivery by up to 48 hours in some locations and easing the process of sorting without a reduction in staff or closing local post offices.[7] Below is a sampling of the reports sent in by postmasters shortly after the implementation of the ZIP Code:

HPHPP-001-002-p0026. Memorandum regarding the implementation of the ZIP Code system in Seattle, Washington, 2 March 1967. View the rest of the folder here.HBHPP-001-010-p0039. Memorandum from the Newark, New York Postmaster to H. Bentley Hahn, reporting back on the new ZIP Code system a year following its introduction, 9 July 1964. View the rest of the folder here.

While there were challenges to work through with the new system, postmasters throughout the region reported overall success in the implementation of the ZIP Code system. Almost 52 years later, the system remains in effect and has continued to adapt to many changes, including advancements in technology.

[1] HBHPP-001-004-p0002

[2] HBHPP-001-012-p0003

[3] HBHPP-001-025-p0004

[4] HBHPP-001-025-p0004

[5] HBHPP-001-032-p0001

[6] HBHPP-001-032-p0014

[7] HBHPP-001-012-p0001

Leading Zeros, Shorten to Five Digits, and Make a Map – BatchGeo Blog

Excel is a powerful tool that experts and novices alike turn to for their data needs. This includes location data like addresses, cities, and states, and even zip codes, where Excel tricks come in handy. There are tricks to keeping or showing leading zeros in zip codes and to shortening zip codes to five digits.

In this post, we’ll show you how to:

  • Keep or show leading zeros
  • Shorten to five digits from Zip+4 format
  • Make a map based on a list of addresses or zip codes

The first Excel zip code trick is how to keep or show leading zeros.

Keep or Show Leading Zeros

As you type numbers beginning with “0” into Excel or Google Sheets, the zeros are automatically removed. However, there may be times when you wish to keep those leading zeros. Phone numbers, product numbers, and zip codes are examples of such occasions. Imagine you’re working with location data from Puerto Rico. It would be incredibly frustrating to type in a “00923” zip code only to have “923” appear.

Keep Leading Zeros as You Type

While keeping leading zeros isn’t the default in Excel, there is a way to keep zeros as you type by changing the format to “Text. ” Do this by following the steps below:

  1. Select your desired cell(s)
  2. Navigate to the Home tab in Excel
  3. Click the dropdown of the Number option
  4. Select Text

This amends the cell’s default settings, though an error ⚠️ message will appear. Click Ignore Error, and now, leading zeros will remain as you type. Alternatively, you can add an apostrophe (’) in front of the number with leading zeros, and Excel will treat it as text. However, perhaps you need your zip codes in a number format so you can use other Excel magic. If this is the case, you’ll want to show leading zeros a different way.

Show Leading Zeros in Cells

You can show leading zeros in cells in a way that still treats the data as a number via formatting.

  1. Select your desired cell(s)
  2. Right-click on the cell(s) and select “Format Cells…”
  3. Navigate to the “Special” Category
  4. Select Zip Code

This method is best for situations in which you need to work with a numeric dataset. Another Excel zip code trick you need to know is how to shorten zip codes to five digits.

Shorten to Five Digits

While less common, U.S. zip codes occasionally come in a nine-digit form called Zip+4. In fact, the five-digit zip codes most of us are familiar with are actually abbreviated versions of nine-digit ZIPs. In many cases, though, five-digit zip codes are preferred. If your spreadsheet contains nine-digit zip codes you want to get rid of, you can shorten the nine-digit zip codes to five digits in one fell swoop with a simple formula.

Follow the steps below to shorten to five digits:

  1. Insert a new column to the right of your current zip code column
  2. Type or copy and paste =LEFT(C2,5), replacing C2 with your cell’s identifier
  3. Drag the formula down the rest of your column

Now your nine-digit ZIPs are shortened to five-digit zip codes. And, since you also now know how to keep and show leading zeros, you can take your data one step further and make a map.

Make a Map

Once you’ve mastered Excel zip code tricks like displaying leading zeros and shortening numbers to five digits, you can make a map. BatchGeo allows you to map your data for free. Create custom maps like the one of places in San Juan, Puerto Rico below.

View San Juan, Puerto Rico locations in a full screen map

When you’re ready to make your own map, gather your data in a spreadsheet. Our post on how to simplify complicated data in Excel spreadsheets can guide you. Once you have your data, get started making your map with the following steps:

  1. Open your spreadsheet
  2. Select (Ctrl+A or Cmd+A) and copy (Ctrl+C or Cmd+C) all your data
  3. Open your web browser and go to
  4. Click on the location data box with the example data in it, then paste (Ctrl+V or Cmd+V) your own data
  5. Check to make sure you have the proper location data columns available by clicking “Validate and Set Options”
  6. Select the proper location column from each drop-down
  7. Click “Make Map” and watch as the geocoder performs its process

Now that you know how to make a map with BatchGeo, you can make custom maps like cities around the world by latitude and longitude or national animals of every country. You can even customize the base style and marker shape and color of your maps. It’s easy to let BatchGeo’s geocoder map your data in seconds, leaving plenty of time to customize your map exactly how you want.

What is Zip Postal Code of Russia. See what «ZIP-code» is in other dictionaries Zip Code and bank cards

Zip: ZIP data compression format. ZIP Code for US Postal Code. Iomega Zip storage device. Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) of the AppleTalk session layer. See also ZIP … Wikipedia

Post code
— (Zip code) Zip code, an American five-digit postal code system (abbr. from zone improvement plan zone reorganization plan) … Countries of the world. Vocabulary

7 Zip … Wikipedia

Hashing (sometimes hashing, English hashing) conversion of an input data array of arbitrary length into an output bit string of a fixed length. Such transformations are also called hash functions or convolution functions, and their results … . .. Wikipedia

— (postcode) A code that appears along with the address on a letter or parcel sent by post to facilitate sorting. When using the current UK system of alphanumeric codification of postal items, their further … … Glossary of business terms

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For Address, see other meanings. Addresses of the recipient and sender on the address bars of the envelope … Wikipedia

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United States of America … Wikipedia


  • Javascript and jQuery. Interactive Web Development John Duckett. This book is intended for web designers and programmers, content managers and content editors, marketers and e-sales managers, bloggers and hobbyists. We are not only…

Total misunderstanding.

Zip Code is a postal code. There are also vanity zip codes, such as 10022-SHOE. What is a Zip Code? And what is it like in Latvia? What is a Social Security Number The SSN is the social security number of a US citizen or legal immigrant.

Postal codes in Russia

The number 16 at the same time denoted the number of the postal neighborhood within the boundaries of the town. US government agencies have separate 5-digit and 9-digit ZIP codes that do not include other users of postal services in the postal zone with this zip code. From time to time, ZIP codes for a particular area may be revised and even cancelled. In the State column, I usually write RU and everything passes # 8230; nine0003

The Internet currently allows you to take things even across the ocean without leaving your room. Several houses or streets of the 1st town can be associated with one postal code. Naturally, the Belarusian index has nothing to do with it, there is no seven-digit index of Belarus in nature. But in the USA, this code is an indispensable requisite when making payments and identifying the identity of a citizen.

If a website allows you to select the country Our Motherland, but at the same time it certainly asks for a 5-digit zip code, then it is simply crooked. Enter 10001 #8212; it is one of the codes for New York. This may be necessary, for example, when calculating any tariffs or selecting advertising. nine0003

What is a ZIP CODE?

The requested topic does not exist. ZIP codes are used to sort mail more quickly and speed up delivery. By the early 1960s, there was a need for a more comprehensive postcode system. Specifically, Moon proposed the newest index system back in 1944, when he worked as a postal inspector.

what is a zip code? is it required when registering on foreign websites?

In this case, it is recommended not to enter the last digit of your six-digit index. And what’s in the ZIP Code column? All sorts of numbers and other things are clear, country # 8212; too, but the State and ZIP Code are not clear #8230; Knowing a clear index, the postman does not have to run all over New York in search of the address indicated on the letter. nine0003

To do this, you must fill out a form on the website where you plan to take this or that thing. With most of the fields, everything is clear, but the field «ZIP / Postal
code» confuses many. This is nothing more than a postal code — the numerical designation of the post office to which your parcel will be delivered, indicating the intermediate sorting post office.

Search for the cheapest airfare on airline websites and airline booking systems. Villas for rent. Briefly about the audience of the forum and its attendance. Prostobank Consulting © 2006-2015 Implementation of website materials is allowed only if a link to the source (hyperlinks for sites) is placed. nine0003

Can be completed with different codes. And can’t you just add a zero at the end of #8230; As I understand it, a friend wants to order something in the UK, so as a postcode, AFAIK #8212; this is a purely English index title.

In the field, most likely, you can drive either n / a or zeros in the required amount. Valid postal codes are indispensable information, not only when sending a letter, but also when filling out forms to receive fundamental documents. Correctly entered postal codes are a guarantee of a quick and reliable receipt of a valuable letter, parcel or postal order. nine0003

It is absolutely necessary to indicate this when registering, but the complexity of the fact that, according to the American standard, it is not uncommon for Zip Code to contain only 5 characters. This means that the iPhone that fell into your hands was linked to a user account in the United States and this user reported to his company about the loss or theft of this device. Additional information: undertakes to use your personal data solely for the purpose of providing iPhone unlocking services.

It’s clear, it’s just that the zip code is sold on ebay, I don’t know what to write!? With it, the website does not fence off from foreigners, but tries to find out in which state and town you are located. Registered users can enter configurations on this page. The brands WEBMONEY and WEBMONEY TRANSFER reproduced on this website are used by the owners of the website with the permission of the copyright holder. Why do they tell us: the most complete and accurate database of postal codes of the Russian Federation, in the Russian Federation. Well, in general, I need it for a program about the weather. nine0003


What is the ZIP code of the country What is it in Russia
. What is the ZIP code of the country What is it in Russia? Zip/Postal Code
and for Russia there is no single index. ZIP code — Wikipedia. ZIP Code Lookup (eng. USPS — The United States Postal Service (U. Postal Service). Retrieved May 4, 2010. Postal codes of Russia
. postal codes of Russia
add to. Postcode ZIP code Russia
— GeoPostcodes. Postcode ZIP code Russia
nine0006 — GeoPostcodes Postal code — ZIP codes. Download zipcodes listing by countries. Buy postcodes of the world. international zip code. What is zip postal code? Russia
Code. There are more than 43,000 Russia Postcode on this website, including Admin Area, Admin Code, Place, Postcode, Latitude, Longitude etc. plus with online map. what is Zip/Postal Code??. I register at http://www. org and the site asks for Zip/ Postal Code
. what is it, IP or what??. ZIP/Postal code
— what is it? What to write in the ZIP/Postal code field. With most of the fields, everything is clear, but the field «ZIP / Postal
code» confuses many. ZIP / Postal code — what is it. What is Zip Code — Zip Code, Postal Code. Russian Forums in USA: What is Zip Code — Zip Code, Postal Code. zip code what is advODKA. Currently postcodes
Russia are a set of What is a zip postal code?

ZIP codes are used to sort mail faster and deliver faster. Initially, they consisted of five digits, but in 19The 80s were expanded to nine digits, which are written with a hyphen — XXXXX-YYYY, for example, 12345-6789.


There are also «vanity» ( vanity
) zip codes e.g. 10022-SHOE

In modern conditions, with the introduction of high-tech equipment for sorting mail, it is enough to use a five-digit code. Devices multiline optical character recognition (Multiline Optical Character Reader
) read the address on the postal item, almost instantly determining the nine-digit index, and also apply an even more complete, eleven-digit barcode based on the POSTNET symbology
. The latter can also be printed on your correspondence using a computer word processor. To calculate and verify the full postal address and zip code, or «delivery point»
), there is a special technique and software (Coding Accuracy Support System
). nine0003

See also


  1. ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code
    (unavailable link)
    . Archived from the original on April 27, 2005.
  2. ZIP+4
    (unavailable link)
    . Learn Paper Terms. Glossary-Z
    . Tecstra Systems Corporation/; International Paper Company. Retrieved May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on April 27, 2005.
  3. See for example:
    • Contacting the Airports Authority
      . nine0049 About The Authority
      . Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.
    • About Us
      . Press Room
      . Federal Citizen Information Center of the U.S. General Services Administration. — «For years, consumers have written to Pueblo, Colorado 81009 for timely, practical information they trust.» Retrieved May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012.
  4. Roberts S.
    nine0050 An elite ZIP code becomes harder to crack // The New York Times. — 2007. — March 21. (English)
    (Retrieved May 4, 2010)
  5. Wheary, Rob; Wagner, Jim; Bogdan, Leon.
    Centralia loses its ZIP; ‘Centralia’ OK, just not the zip; Centralians win postal service fight
    . News
    . Centralia PA Columbia County Conyngham Township. Retrieved May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.
  6. Saks department gets own ZIP code: 10022-SHOE —
    nine0005 (unspecified)

    Archived from the original on April 28, 2013.

    . Date of access 26 April 2013. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013.
  8. Insert a barcode into an Office document
    . Using SharePoint sites to collaborate
    . Microsoft Office Online Microsoft Corporation. — «Applies to: Microsoft Office Excel 2007, PowerPoint 2007, Word 2007». Retrieved May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.
  9. Archived: How can I print routing bar codes on envelopes?
    . nine0049 Knowledge Base
    . University Information Technology Services; The Trustees of Indiana University. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

Russian-speaking users often have questions about the Zip Code. What it is? In fact, everything is simple. This is a common zip code in the United States of America. What are its features and differences from our index? Let’s take a look at this.

Each country in the world has its own postal code system. Somewhere only numerical identifiers are used, while in other countries alphabetic identifiers are also used. nine0003

Differences from the index in Russia

So, Zip Code — what is it? Russia uses a familiar postal code. In the USA it is called differently. Our postal code consists of six digits, and there it consists of five or nine. In the second case, it is written with a hyphen after the first five digits. Specifies the Zip Code state and region of the destination. Usually in simple cities there are dozens of indexes, and in large cities there are hundreds. In the case where nine digits are used, an extension is used that specifies the address. nine0003


The index system has been in use in the United States since the early 1960s. The abbreviation translated into Russian sounds like “zonal improvement plan”. The system was designed for faster mail sorting and faster delivery. Robert Moon is considered to be the author, despite the fact that he suggested using a three-digit index. It was thanks to him that the new system started working in test mode. He proposed it back in 1944. Then he worked as a postal inspector. At first, the indexes consisted of only five digits, but were later expanded. Before the introduction of Zip codes, the index was written using the serial number of the postal district located within the city. nine0003

The meaning of the numbers

The new system implied that the first three digits meant one or another centralized point where the sorting of mail items coming from all post offices assigned to this point took place. The last two digits indicated the number of the post office to which it was necessary to send the correspondence. If it was a large city, then the former serial number of its postal district coincided with them.

At the end of postcodes has become mandatory throughout the country. In order to popularize indexes, a cartoon character called Mr. Zip was invented, which was depicted on postage stamps and billboards. I wonder what his four-year-old postman’s son came up with and drew. nine0003

Also, to promote the new system, songs were recorded to tunes known at the time.

Our time

Since 1983 the Postal Service has started to use advanced indexing. The last four digits can represent a specific city block or apartment complex, subdivision that needs an additional identifier to facilitate delivery.

US government agencies also have separate Zip codes.

Due to the current development of technology, it is sufficient to use only a five-digit index. Recognition devices are able to read addresses, instantly determining the index. For this, special software is also used.

ZIP code lookup at

Postcode in the United States of America is also called PostCode, Zip Code. What is it — we found out. But how to find it? To search there is a special website of the Postal Service. By entering the address, you can get the exact postal code. nine0003

It is worth noting that PostCode can also be understood as an alphabetic abbreviation denoting a certain state of the country. The code consists of two letters and is exactly the same as the ANSI (Standards Institute) abbreviations.

Zip Code and bank cards

Due to the ubiquitous development of Internet services, more and more users around the world are shopping online. And often there are different difficulties. For example, a user from Russia wants to buy something on an American site. When paying with a card, he is prompted to enter the Billing Zip Code. What it is? Most stop at this stage. In fact, there is nothing complicated here. This term refers to the postal code that is linked to the user’s bank card. That is what you need to enter to make a purchase. nine0003

Thus, we found out that the Zip Code is an ordinary postal code. It differs from Russian only in the number of digits. It is used both for sending and receiving mail, and for making purchases in real and online stores.


ZIP code is the postal code system used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Letters ZIP is an abbreviation for Zone Improvement Plan . The letters are written correctly in capital letters. The word ZIP was chosen to imply that mail travels more efficiently and quickly when senders use this code. The main ZIP code consists of five digits. Extended code ZIP + 4 includes five digits of the ZIP code, a hyphen, and four more digits. This allows you to send the mailing to a more precise location than using only the ZIP code. ZIP code was a trademark of the US Postal Service, but has since been deregistered.

1963 zip code sign.


The Postal Service began using postal zones for major cities in 1943. By the early 1960s, a more general system was needed. 1 July 1963 years ZIP codes were created for the whole country, but they were not mandatory. In 1967, they became mandatory for many types of mail. Soon this system was used for all postal items.

ZIP + 4

In 1983, the US Postal Service began using an extended ZIP code system called «ZIP + 4», often referred to as «plus four codes» or «additional codes».

Wikimedia Foundation Inc.

200 2nd Ave. South #358

St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-4313

33701 is the main zip code, 4313 is «+4».

The ZIP + 4 code uses a basic five-digit code plus an additional four digits to identify a geographic area within a five-digit delivery zone, such as a group of apartments or a location that receives a lot of mail.

Structure and distribution

ZIP codes are numbered, with the first digit representing a specific group of US states. The second and third digits represent a region within that group of states or, in some cases, a major city. The fourth and fifth numbers represent a group of shipping addresses in that region. The main city of a region (if applicable) often receives the first ZIP codes for that region. Other cities often receive ZIP codes in alphabetical order. nine0003

The first digit of the ZIP code is used as follows:

  • 0 = Connecticut (CT), Massachusetts (MA), Maine (ME), New Hampshire (NH), New Jersey (NJ), Puerto Rico (PR), Rhode Island (RI), Vermont (VT), Virgin Islands (VI), APO Europe (AE), FPO Europe (AE)
  • 1 = Delaware (DE), New York (NY), Pennsylvania (PA)
  • 2 = District of Columbia (DC), Maryland (MD), North Carolina (NC), South Carolina (SC), Virginia (VA), West Virginia (WV)
  • 3 = Alabama (AL), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Mississippi (MS), Tennessee (TN), APO Americas (AA), FPO Americas (AA)
  • 4 = Indiana (IN), Kentucky ( KY), Michigan (MI), Ohio (OH)
  • 5 = Iowa (IA), Minnesota (MN), Montana (MT), North Dakota (ND), South Dakota (SD), Wisconsin (WI)
  • 6 = Illinois (IL), Kansas (KS), Missouri (MO), Nebraska (NE)
  • 7 = Arkansas (AR), Louisiana (LA), Oklahoma (OK), Texas (TX)
  • 8 = Arizona (AZ ), Colorado (CO), Idaho (ID), New Mexico (NM), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), Wyoming (WY)
  • 9 = Alaska (AK), American Samoa (AS), California (CA), Guam (GU), Hawaii (HI), Marshall Islands (MH), Federated States of Micronesia (FM), Northern Mariana Islands (MP), Oregon (OR), Palau (PW), Washington (WA), APO Pacific (AP), FPO Pacific (AP).

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