Weather throughout the year: Compare the Climate and Weather Between Two+ Cities Worldwide

Compare the Climate and Weather Between Two+ Cities Worldwide

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Weather Spark lets you compare and contrast the weather and climate between any two to four cities worldwide. You get a detailed report with graphs showing the precise differences between them. Even better than a side-by-side comparison, the report shows you the information in unified graphs.





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Average Annual Temperatures by USA State

The average temperature for the year in every USA state is listed below. The states are also ranked from the hottest state at number 1 to the coldest state at number 50.

Below the tables there’s a map that allows you to visually compare the annual average temperatures among states.

State-wide averages of annual temperatures range from a high of 70.7 degrees Fahrenheit (21.5 degrees Celsius) in Florida to a low of 26.6 °F (-3.0 °C) in Alaska. For the entire United States, excluding Hawaii and Alaska, the year averages 52.7 °F (11.5 °C).

The temperatures are based on data collected by weather stations throughout each state during the years 1971 to 2000 and made available by the NOAA National Climatic Data Center of the United States.

State names are linked to more detailed temperature information for that state.

Average annual temperature for each state.
State Avg °F Avg °C Rank
Alabama 62.8 17.1 7
Alaska 26. 6 -3.0 50
Arizona 60.3 15.7 10
Arkansas 60.4 15.8 9
California 59.4 15.2 12
Colorado 45.1 7.3 39
Connecticut 49.0 9.4 29
Delaware 55.3 12.9 16
Florida 70.7 21.5 1
Georgia 63.5 17.5 5
Hawaii 70.0 21.1 2
Idaho 44.4 6.9 40
Illinois 51.8 11.0 23
Indiana 51.7 10.9 25
Iowa 47.8 8.8 36
Kansas 54.3 12.4 19
Kentucky 55.6 13.1 15
State Avg °F Avg °C Rank
Louisiana 66. 4 19.1 3
Maine 41.0 5.0 48
Maryland 54.2 12.3 20
Massachusetts 47.9 8.8 35
Michigan 44.4 6.9 40
Minnesota 41.2 5.1 47
Mississippi 63.4 17.4 6
Missouri 54.5 12.5 18
Montana 42.7 5.9 45
Nebraska 48.8 9.3 30
Nevada 49.9 9.9 28
New Hampshire 43.8 6.6 42
New Jersey 52.7 11.5 22
New Mexico 53.4 11.9 21
New York 45.4 7.4 37
North Carolina 59.0 15.0 13
North Dakota 40. 4 4.7 49
State Avg °F Avg °C Rank
Ohio 50.7 10.4 26
Oklahoma 59.6 15.3 11
Oregon 48.4 9.1 33
Pennsylvania 48.8 9.3 30
Rhode Island 50.1 10.1 27
South Carolina 62.4 16.9 8
South Dakota 45.2 7.3 38
Tennessee 57.6 14.2 14
Texas 64.8 18.2 4
Utah 48.6 9.2 32
Vermont 42.9 6.1 44
Virginia 55.1 12.8 17
Washington 48.3 9.1 34
West Virginia 51.8 11. 0 23
Wisconsin 43.1 6.2 43
Wyoming 42.0 5.6 46

Brief description of climate

Equatorial climate

This type of climate is characterized by the predominance of hot and humid equatorial air masses. The air temperature here is constant (+24–28 °C), during the year there is a lot of precipitation (from 1500 to 5000 mm). Due to the fact that the amount of precipitation exceeds evaporation, the soils in the equatorial climate are waterlogged, dense and tall moist forests grow on them. The equatorial type of climate is formed over the northern regions of South America, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, over the basin of the Congo River and the upper reaches of the Nile in Africa, over most of the Indonesian archipelago and the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in Asia. nine0005

Subequatorial climate

With this type of climate there are rainy seasons every year — in summer it is hot and heavy rainfall is frequent. With the arrival of winter comes a cooler and drier season. Precipitation in the subequatorial climate is distributed very unevenly. For example, in the capital of Guinea, Conakry, 15 mm of precipitation falls in December-March, and 3920 mm in June-September. This type of climate is common in parts of the Indian Ocean, in the western Pacific Ocean, as well as over South Asia and in the tropics of Africa and South America. nine0005

Tropical climate

High pressure anticyclones prevail in the tropical climate zone, and the weather is clear most of the year. This climate zone is characterized by two seasons: warm and cold. Temperatures can range from +20°C on the coast to +50°C inland. The daily fluctuation of temperature is also very significant: in summer, during the day, the air heats up to +40–45 °С, while at night it cools down to +10–15 °С. Deserts are common in the tropics, the largest of which is the Sahara in Africa. In more humid areas, savannas and deciduous forests are common. The tropical climate is typical for Mexico, North and South Africa, Central Australia, the Arabian Peninsula. nine0005

Subtropical climate

Subtropical climate prevails in regions located between tropical and temperate latitudes, approximately between 30° and 45° north and south latitude. It usually has hot tropical summers and fairly cool winters. The average monthly temperature in summer is above +22 °C, in winter it is above -3 °C, but due to intrusions of polar air, frosts down to -10 … -15 °C are possible, and occasionally severe (up to -25 °C) frosts. This type of climate is typical for the Mediterranean, South Africa, Southwestern Australia, Northwestern California. nine0005

Moderate climate

This type of climate is formed over temperate latitudes (from 40–45° north and south latitude to the polar circles). In the Northern Hemisphere, more than half of the surface of the temperate zone is occupied by land, in the Southern Hemisphere, 98% are oceans. A temperate climate is characterized by frequent and severe weather changes due to cyclones. The main feature of the temperate climate is four seasons: two main ones — cold (winter) and warm (summer), and two intermediate ones — spring and autumn. The average temperature of the coldest month is usually below 0 °C, while the warmest month is above +15 °C. In temperate climates, there is snow on the ground in winter. The prevailing westerly winds bring precipitation throughout the year, from 1000 mm in coastal areas to 100 mm inland. nine0005


(subarctic/subantarctic) climate

The subarctic climate zone is located between the arctic and temperate climatic zones of the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth. In summer, a moderate air mass dominates here, in winter — arctic. Summer is short and cold in July, the air temperature during the day rarely rises above +15 °С, at night it drops to 0 … +3 °С. Night frosts are not ruled out throughout the summer. In winter, the air temperature during the day and at night is -35–45 °С. The territory dominated by the subarctic climate is occupied by tundra and forest-tundra, the soils are permafrost, plants and animals are rare. The subarctic climate is common in the north of Russia and Canada, in Alaska (USA), in South Greenland and in the far north of Europe. The Subantarctic climate zone is located in the Southern Hemisphere between the temperate and Antarctic zones. The vast majority of the subantarctic climatic zone is occupied by the ocean surface. The amount of precipitation reaches 500 mm per year. nine0005

Polar climate

Above 70° north and 65° south latitude, the polar climate dominates, forming two zones: arctic and antarctic. Polar air masses dominate here throughout the year. The sun does not appear at all for several months (this time is called “polar night”) and does not go below the horizon for several months (“polar day”). Snow and ice give off more heat than they receive, so the air is very cold, the snow does not melt all year. Throughout the year, there is high atmospheric pressure (anticyclone), so the winds are weak, there are almost no clouds. There is very little precipitation, the air is saturated with small ice needles, and long drizzle is typical in summer. The average summer temperature does not exceed 0 °C, and winter -20–40 °C. nine0005

Weather and climate, climate types. Climatic zones

Air temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, precipitation and wind determine the weather — the physical state of the lower layer of the atmosphere at a particular point in space at a certain point in time.

The weather is changeable. Its change depends on changes in individual characteristics — air temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, nature and amount of precipitation, wind speed and direction. Weather changes are subject to daily and annual rhythms. The daily rhythm is due to the daytime heating of the earth’s surface by the sun’s rays and its nighttime cooling. The annual rhythm is determined by the change in the angle of incidence of the sun’s rays on the earth’s surface during the year. Remember that if the earth’s axis were not tilted, then at any point on our planet the weather would not change during the year. nine0005

Weather is essential for the life of human activities.

The science that studies atmospheric phenomena is called meteorology, and the branch of meteorology that studies the physical processes in the atmosphere to determine the future state of the weather is called weather forecasting. The weather is studied at meteorological stations using a variety of instruments. Based on the data obtained, a synoptic map is compiled — a map on which weather data is plotted at a certain point in time. Synoptic maps are compiled several times a day. Their comparison helps to make weather forecasts. nine0005

Air masses, that is, huge volumes of air that have arisen over a certain territory, moving in one direction and having similar indicators, can be warm or cold, wet or dry, can have different pressures. The zone of separation of air masses of different properties (primarily in temperature) in the troposphere is called an atmospheric front.

Atmospheric fronts have a width of several tens of kilometers and a height of several hundred meters. They can stretch for thousands of kilometers and always have a slight slope with respect to the earth’s surface. Atmospheric fronts are divided into warm and cold. nine0005

A warm front is formed by the active movement (advance) of warm air towards cold air. Warm air, being lighter, flows into the receding wedge of cold air and rises along the interface plane. Warm air cools as it rises. This leads to water vapor condensation, formation of clouds (cirrus and nimbostratus) and drizzling precipitation. Atmospheric pressure decreases with the arrival of a warm front, but this process occurs slowly, with a weak wind. nine0005

A cold front is formed when cold air moves towards warm air. Cold air, being heavier, flows under warm air and pushes it up. In this case, stratocumulus rain clouds form, from which showers fall. in the form of squalls and thunderstorms. Atmospheric pressure rises rapidly with the arrival of a cold front, as a result, the wind intensifies.

The long-term weather regime established in a given area is called climate, and the science that studies it is called climatology. nine0005

The main factors influencing climate or climate formation factors are: geographical latitude, prevailing air masses and winds, remoteness of the territory from the ocean, relief, absolute height, sea currents.

The amount of incoming solar radiation, that is, the air temperature, primarily depends on geographical latitude.

The prevailing air masses and winds determine the amount and mode of precipitation.

The remoteness of the territory from the ocean also affects the precipitation regime. nine0005

Terrain can help or hinder the movement of air masses. The flatness of the land facilitates the movement of air masses over long distances, as a result of which the climate of the coasts and the interior of the continents is evened out. Mountains, on the other hand, trap air masses, thereby increasing the contrast of the climate.

The absolute height of the terrain affects the air temperature. The higher, the colder.

Warm sea currents saturate the air with moisture and increase its temperature. Cold currents produce the opposite effect. nine0005

The climate varies zonal, azonal and in height.

Zonality of climate change is expressed in the existence of thirteen latitudinal climatic zones, which are divided into basic and transitional.

The main climatic zones are: equatorial, two tropical, two temperate, arctic and antarctic. To transitional — two subequatorial, two subtropical, subarctic and subantarctic.

Within the climatic zones, climatic regions are distinguished that differ in the type of climate (azonal climate changes). Climate types are determined by the dominance of maritime or continental air. They differ in all characteristics of the climate (weather). nine0005

Before starting to get acquainted with the climatic zones, we will consider the main types of climate.

Maritime (oceanic) humid climate is distributed over oceans and small islands, as well as on the coasts of mainlands and large islands. Please note that on the continents, the maritime climate covers only those coasts on which winds blow from the ocean all year round (that is, ocean air dominates). These coasts include western coasts in temperate zones and eastern coasts in tropical zones. In addition, thanks to the trade winds, the marine type of climate is common on the eastern coasts of the continents in the subtropical zones of the Southern Hemisphere. nine0005

Distinctive features of the maritime climate are abundant precipitation (1000–2000 mm/year and more), which falls evenly throughout the year, as well as small daily (2–3 C) and seasonal (no more than 15 C) temperature fluctuations.

The continental type of climate, due to the constant dominance of land air (continental air), is the complete opposite of the sea. The continental climate covers the middle of the continents and the western coasts of the continents in tropical zones. The continental climate is characterized by a small amount of uneven precipitation (up to 300 mm/year) and sharp daily (up to 40 C) and seasonal (up to 60 C) temperature fluctuations due to dry air. nine0005

The monsoon type of climate is due to the dominance of the monsoons, which change direction in winter and summer and bring either humid or dry air. The main feature of the monsoon climate is the sharp predominance of precipitation in summer and its almost complete absence in winter. Annual rainfall ranges from 600 to 800 mm. Seasonal temperature fluctuations in the subequatorial belt are insignificantly expressed, and outside the tropics they become quite sharp.

The Mediterranean type of climate is distributed only in subtropical zones on the western coasts of the continents. In summer, the trade winds bring here dry and warm air, tropical air from the center of the mainland, due to which the summer is hot and with little rainfall. In winter, westerly winds bring humid and not very cold ocean air, which is why winters are rainy and warm. nine0005

Now let’s move on to climatic zones.

The equatorial climatic zone is located in the equator. This is the only belt in which there is no change of seasons of the year (that is, the difference between the seasons is not expressed). Hot and humid equatorial air masses dominate here throughout the year. The air temperature is +25 — +28 C all year round. Atmospheric precipitation in the form of rain falls daily in the afternoon. The annual amount of precipitation is approximately 3000 mm. The two most rainy periods coincide with the equinoxes, when the Sun, passing over the equator at its zenith, heats the land surface and the water surface to the maximum, increasing evaporation. nine0005

Subequatorial climatic zones frame the equatorial one. They have a monsoonal climate. The summer monsoon brings humid equatorial air, while the winter monsoon brings dry tropical air. Atmospheric precipitation falls only in summer. The amount of precipitation decreases from the border with the equatorial belt (1500 mm/year) to the border with the tropical zone (300 mm/year). There are two seasons in the subequatorial belt — rainy summer and dry winter. Temperature differences between them are small, but still present. In summer, the air temperature fluctuates between +26 — +28 C, and in winter — +22 — +24 C. In the rainy summer, daily temperature fluctuations are practically not observed, and in the dry winter season it is much warmer during the day than at night. nine0005

Tropical climatic zones are located between subequatorial and subtropical. The trade winds blow here all year round. Depending on where the trade winds bring air from — from the ocean or from the mainland, there are two types of climate in the tropical zone: maritime and continental.

Continental tropical climate is typical for the central part and the western coast of the continents. There is little precipitation here (less than 250 mm/year). Daily temperature fluctuations reaching 40 C are sharply pronounced. Seasonal fluctuations are less — in summer the air temperature is on average +30 C, and in winter — +15 C. The hottest places on our planet are located in the continental tropical climate zones. nine0005

The maritime climate of the tropical zone is typical for the eastern coasts of the continents, where the trade winds carry moist air from the ocean throughout the year. The marine tropical climate is very similar to the equatorial one. Atmospheric precipitation falls here constantly (daily) and in large quantities (over 2000 mm/year). In summer, the average air temperature is +26 C, and in winter — +22 C.

Subtropical climatic zones are located between tropical and temperate. In summer, the trade winds bring tropical air masses here, and in winter, westerly winds bring air masses of temperate latitudes. There are four types of climate here: continental, maritime, monsoon and Mediterranean. nine0005

The continental subtropical climate is characterized by low rainfall (less than 250 mm/year) and sharp fluctuations in daily and seasonal temperatures. In summer the air temperature reaches +30 C (but can rise even higher), and in winter it drops to 0 C. trade winds bring moist air from the ocean.

Precipitation here is constant and exceeds 1000 mm/year. nine0005

Due to high humidity (greenhouse effect), seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations are not pronounced. In summer, the air temperature averages +23 C, and in winter — +10 C.

The Mediterranean subtropical climate is formed in the west of the continents. In summer, the trade winds bring dry, warm air here from the center of the continent, and in winter, westerly winds bring moist, relatively warm air from the oceans. Precipitation mainly falls in winter (about 600 mm/year). In summer, the average air temperature is +23 — +25 C, and in winter — +5 — +8 C.

Monsoon climate A subtropical climate occurs on the eastern coasts of North America and Eurasia. In summer, monsoons bring humid ocean air here, and in winter, dry air from the central part of the mainland. Precipitation mainly falls in summer (about 800 mm/year). In summer, the air temperature averages +23 C, and in winter it drops to C.

Moderate climatic zones are located between subtropical and subarctic or subantarctic zones. Western winds dominate here throughout the year. Temperate climatic zones are the widest, they are strongly elongated from north to south, so seasonal temperatures in high and low latitudes differ significantly. There are four types of climate here: continental, temperate continental, maritime and monsoonal. nine0005

The continental climate is characterized by a low amount of precipitation (less than 300 mm/year), mainly falling in the warm season. Seasonal temperature differences are significant — from +30 C in summer to -30 C in winter.

A temperate continental climate is formed in the west of North America and Eurasia, where humid oceanic and dry continental air alternate during the year. In terms of precipitation and temperature differences, this climate is a temperate continental climate that is transitional from continental to maritime. Precipitation falls all year round, but most of them occur during the warm season. The annual rainfall is approximately 600 mm. Summer temperatures range from +13 C in the north to +18 C in the south, and winter temperatures, respectively, from -15 to -5 C.

The maritime climate is characteristic of the western coasts of Eurasia and the Americas, where western winds bring moist ocean air all year round. Precipitation here falls throughout the year (1000 mm/year). Seasonal and daily fluctuations are expressed unsharply. In summer the temperature fluctuates between +13 — +18 C, and in winter it drops to 0 C.

Monsoon climate is formed in the east of Eurasia and North America. Summer monsoons bring humid ocean air, while winter monsoons bring dry continental air. Precipitation occurs predominantly in summer, with an annual amount of approximately 800 mm. Summer temperatures range from +13 C to +18 C, while winter temperatures range from -10 C to -20 C.

The subarctic and subantarctic climatic zones are located above the temperate ones. In winter, arctic or antarctic cold and dry air dominates here. Winters are cold (down to –40 C and below) and long (up to 8–9 months), on land there is permafrost. In summer, westerly winds briefly bring moist, cool air from temperate latitudes here. In summer the air temperature does not rise above +10 C.

Precipitation falls all year round, but more in summer.

In the subantarctic climatic zone, the type of climate is maritime, because this zone covers the marine part of Antarctica. nine0005

In the subarctic zone, there is both a maritime climate (oceans, islands and western coasts of the outskirts of North America and Eurasia) and a continental climate (northern North America and northeast Eurasia). In the maritime subarctic climate and throughout the entire subantarctic belt, precipitation is up to 500 mm/year. In the continental subarctic climate, annual precipitation does not exceed 300 mm.

In the continental subarctic climate, the sharpest fluctuations in seasonal temperatures are observed, amounting to more than 100 C — from + 34 in summer to -71 C in winter. nine0005

The Antarctic climate zone is located inside the southern polar circle and covers the mainland of Antarctica, which is why the climate here is dry and cold continental air (permanent anticyclone). The central part of Antarctica is one of the driest places on Earth. In some parts of it, no more than 5 mm of precipitation falls per year.

The average summer temperature on the coast of Antarctica is about 0 C, and in the central part it is not higher than -32 C. Winter temperatures drop below -70 C. temperature -89,2 C.

The Arctic climate zone is located beyond the Arctic Circle above the Arctic Ocean, which is why the type of climate here is maritime. Precipitation falls all year round (up to 250 mm/year), but mostly in summer. Average summer temperature — 0 C, winter -30 C.

Please note! Geography, like all other sciences, requires not cramming, but understanding. No need to memorize the characteristics of each climatic zone. It is necessary to understand why such a climate has formed in this area. nine0005

The first question to ask is what is the air like here in summer and winter? That is, where the air masses come from in the warm and cold seasons.

Ocean air is always humid, continental air is always dry.

Water vapor has the ability to absorb heat reflected from the earth’s surface. It can be compared to a heat insulator that prevents heat from being released into space. Consequently, where the air is humid, periodic temperature fluctuations will be less pronounced than where the air is dry. nine0005

Heating the air increases its moisture content, while cooling it decreases it. When moist air cools, precipitation falls.

When heated, the air rises. At the same time, the atmospheric pressure decreases.

As it cools down, the air sinks. At the same time, atmospheric pressure rises.

The wind always blows from an area of ​​high pressure to an area of ​​low pressure.

Terrain may help or hinder the movement of air masses. Air masses overcome low and high barriers (mountains) in different ways. nine0005

Sea currents are warm and cold. They affect the climate of the landmasses they pass by.

The change of seasons is caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation. As a result of this inclination, during the rotation around the Sun, the Earth is directed towards it by either the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere. The hemisphere directed towards the Sun receives more solar radiation. The amount of incoming solar radiation, that is, the air temperature, primarily depends on the geographic latitude. nine0005

To visually demonstrate the annual movement of the Earth around the Sun and the daily rotation of the Earth around its axis (as well as the rotation of the Moon around the Earth), a device called tellurium was created.

The absorption of solar radiation is maximum if the rays are perpendicular to the earth’s surface. Reducing the angle of incidence of rays reduces their absorption, that is, reduces the heating of the earth’s surface.

The remoteness of the territory from the ocean affects the precipitation regime.

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