Informacion del grito de lares: Celebración del Grito de Lares

Grito de Lares



Los Documentos de Puerto Rico en  P r o
y e c t o   S a l n   H o g a r






                                                                                                              
Declaracin de Lares
[Entrar]




Breve historia del Grito de Lares


Trabajo realizado por: Hctor A. Garca

 



El Dr. Ramn Emeterio Betances
(en foto izquierda) y el
abogado Segundo Ruiz Belvis, (retrato derecha)
haban salido de Puerto Rico hacia la
Repblica Dominicana para organizar un alzamiento independentista en la
isla. Ruiz Belvis sigui hacia Chile, pues el gobierno de ese pas haba
ofrecido ayuda a la causa separatista, ayuda que no lleg a dar.

All el
abogado muri en forma sospechosa. Betances cre un Comit Revolucionario
de Puerto Rico y organiz juntas y legaciones revolucionarias. Los
principales dirigentes de la isla eran Matas Brugman, Manuel Rojas,
Manuel Mara Gonzlez, Carlos Lacroix y Manuel Cebollero.

El gobierno dominicano a travs del
General Lupern y el Presidente Buenaventura Bez, haba apoyado a
Betances. Le haba permitido reclutar y armar un pequeo ejrcito y le
facilit un barco armado. Cuando casi todo estaba listo para llevar a cabo
la expedicin contra la isla, el gobierno espaol consigui que el
Presidente Bez prohibiera la salida de los expedicionarios de territorio
dominicano, y que las autoridades en Saint Thomas, donde estaba fondeado
el barco, lo ocuparan.

Mientras los planes de Betances quedaban
as desbaratados, en Puerto Rico el Ejrcito detuvo a uno de los
principales dirigentes de la conspiracin y ocup documentos
comprometedores. Los dems lderes, temiendo ser arrestados, decidieron
adelantar la fecha sealada para iniciar la revolucin sin esperar por
Betances.



El da 23 de septiembre de 1868 unos
cuatrocientos hombres mal armados tomaron la poblacin de Lares,
declararon la Repblica de Puerto Rico y formaron un gobierno provisional.
Adoptaron como emblema una bandera que se cree diseada por Betances y
cosida por Mariana Bracetti, «Brazo de Oro».

Al da siguiente atacaron la poblacin del
Pepino, donde esperaban ocupar algunas armas, pero la milicia de aquella
poblacin ya aguardaba el ataque y haba recibido un pequeo refuerzo, por
lo cual los revolucionarios fueron rechazados despus de haber sufrido
algunas bajas. Cuando se reagruparon en las afueras del pueblo y volvieron
al ataque, se acercaba a San Sebastin la tropa veterana de Moca, as que
fue necesario ordenar la retirada.

El Ejrcito inici inmediatamente la
persecusin de los fugitivos, muchos de los cuales se encontraban
desarmados o armados solo de machetes. En los das siguientes los soldados
dieron muerte a Brugman y a otros rebeldes. Arrestaron a ms de quinientas
personas. Se les celebr juicio en el cual siete de los principales
dirigentes fueron condenados a morir, pero la sentencia no lleg a
cumplirse.

Extracto tomado del libro de
Lucas Morn Arce,

Historia de Puerto Rico.


Factores
que contribuyeron al fracaso de la revuelta:


Entre los factores que podemos
sealar se encuentra la confianza excesiva que tenan los revolucionarios,
quienes comenzaron a divulgar informacin que trascendi el mbito de la
reserva, y las autoridades comenzaron a adquirir conocimiento de lo que se
estaba fraguando.

A las sospechas del gobierno, se sumaron las delaciones
de personas que conocan el movimiento, y las filtraciones fueron causa
para que se tuviese que adelantar la fecha de la rebelin.

A mediados de 1868, el corregidor don
Antonio Balboa sorpredi en Mayagez al agente Pedro Garca en el momento
en que colectaba fondos para la causa, confiscndole una lista de donantes
y suscriptores. Un afiliado a la conspiracin, Hilario Martnez, hizo
indiscretas revelaciones a su sobrino Carlos Antonio Lpez, el cual las
comunic al capitan de milicias de Quebradillas, don Juan Castan,
poniendo al descubierto a la Junta Lanzador del Norte y la identidad de su
presidente Manuel Mara Gonzlez. Castan inform la confidencia al
comandante militar de Arecibo, don Manuel de Iturriaga, que en la
madrugada del 19 de septiembre de 1968, allan la residencia de Gonzlez
en el barrio Palomas, de Camuy, se incaut de documentacin comprometedora
y arrest a Gonzlez trasladndolo a la crcel de Arecibo. Iturriaga
organiz 50 milicianos de Arecibo y destac en Camuy parte del Batalln de
Cdiz al mando del capitn Jos Pujols. La noticia del apresamiento fue
comunicada al presidente de la Junta de Lares, y a Cap Prieto de Mayagez.

A la noche siguiente (20 de septiembre de
1868), se reuni la directiva de la Junta Cap Prieto en casa de Matas
Brugman en la Hacienda Buenavista del barrio Furnias y se acord el
levantamiento para el 23 de septiembre, adelantando los planes que fueron
originalmente planeados para el 30 de ese mes. Lares y San Sebastin
seran los primeros objetivos; Moca, Quebradillas, Camuy y Arecibo
vendran despus. El sitio de reunin de las fuerzas rebeldes sera la
Hacienda de Manuel Rojas en el barrio Pezuela, localizada a una legua de
Lares. As lo informaron a las dems juntas demandando de ellas la
inmediata ejecucin de las rdenes que se le estaban enviando. Se tena
conciencia de que se estaba actuando con apremio para evitar que el
Gobierno matara la revuelta antes de que iniciara. Lares era el mejor
sitio. Estratgicamente localizado en la regin montaosa del oeste
central, un lugar lejos de la capital y de difcil acceso. La zona contaba
con el nmero mayor de participantes, y estaba cerca de Arecibo, donde
mantenan preso a Manuel Mara Gonzlez; tena acceso por carretera a San
Sebastan, donde se guardaban las armas y municiones del cuartel de
milicias. Lares ofreca facilidades de comunicacin con Arecibo, San
Germn, Yauco, Adjuntas y Mayagez.

El momento no era el ms aconsejable para
ejecutar el plan. Las circunstancias obligaron a los rebeldes a pasar
sbitamente de la etapa preparatoria a la accin. No contaron con el
equipo militar necesario, ni los hombres que deban venir a auxiliarlos,
por haber sido confiscados los armamentos por orden del presidente de
Santo Domingo, Buenaventura Bez. El transporte que habran de utilizar
fue decomisado por las autoridades de Saint Thomas. Desde abril de 1868,
Bez trataba de arrestar a Betances para enviarlo a Puerto Rico. Aos
despus Espaa ofreci asilo politco a Bez cuando fue depuesto por un
golpe revolucionario. Las juntas no recibieron a tiempo la notificacin de
la junta de Mayagez, y otras jams las recibieron. Muchos miembros de las
juntas se abstuvieron de apoyar el movimiento por el pesimismo que cre el
apresamiento de Manuel Mara Gonzlez.

Extracto tomado del libro de Luis M. Daz Soler,

Puerto Rico:
desde sus orgenes hasta el cese de la dominacin espaola.


2do relato provisto
por el municipio de Lares

    Continuaba el sistema colonial vigente en la isla desde Ponce de Len, 
cuyas injusticias se acentaban en el siglo XIX, el malestar ocasionado por
las promesas de la reforma incumplidas, hechas por el gobierno central de
Madrid, pero que nunca se materializaban. Las limitaciones impuestas al
comercio exterior: la persecucin abusiva de los abolicionistas
puertorriqueos, etc. Ramn Emeterio Betances y Segundo Ruz Belvis,
desterrado en 1867 a causa de su mentalidad revolucionaria acuden a Santo
Domingo y luego a Nueva York en busca de dinero y armas para liberar a
Puerto Rico y establecer aqu una repblica libre y demcratica. Muerto Ruz
Belviz en 1867, Betances prepara la revolucin armada desde Santo Domingo.
Se pone en comunicacin con los separatistas de Puerto Rico, que forman una
cadenas de sociedades secretas o juntas: son conocidas como la de Mayagez,
Ponce, Camuy, San Sebastin. Mientras tanto Betances rene hombres, fusiles
y municiones; adems adquiere un barco y un telgrafo. Todo se organiza para
el 29 de septiembre de 1868. El plan era producir un levantamiento en
diferentes pueblos y enseguida desembarcar a Betances con 10,000 hombres por
Mayagez. Una declaracin ocurrida en Camuy, que pone en alerta a las
autoridades, lleva a los separatistas a adelantar el golpe.

     El 20 de septiembre los conjurados en Mayagez acordaron dar inicio a
la revolucin en la finca de Manuel Rojas en Lares con el objetivo de tomar
a Lares y San Sebastin y subsiguientemente a Moca, Quebradillas, Camuy y
Arecibo. Se fij la fecha del 23 de septiembre. El aviso a las juntas de la
isla no lleg a tiempo, tampoco pudo enterarse Betances, cuyo barco haba
sido confiscado en San Thomas.

A la media noche del 23 de
septiembre, armados con fusiles y machetes, a pie y a caballo los
insurrectos entraron al pueblo de Lares a los gritos de: «VIVA PUERTO RICO
LIBRE» y «ABAJO LOS IMPUESTOS». La tropa estaba compuesta por 400 hombres al
mando de Manuel Rojas como caudillo y de Matas Brugman. Manuel Cebollero,
Eusebio Ibarra y Pablo Beuchamp. Como lugartenientes figuran Joaqun
Parrilla, Andrs Pol, Juan Terreforte, Baldomero Bauren, Gabino Plumey,
Pablo Rivera y otros. Adems de Salvo Rojas que era venezolano, Brugman era
norteamericano y haban algunos dominicanos, los dems eran boricuas.

Trabajo realizado por: Hctor A. Garca

     Los insurrectos tomaron el ayuntamiento poniendo all la bandera de la
Repblica de Puerto Rico diseada por Betances. Se constituy el gobierno
provisional integrado por Francisco Ramrez Medina como presidente de la
Repblica, Aurelio Mndez como ministro de la gobernacin, Clemente Milln
como ministro de estado y Bernab Pol como secretario. El gobierno se
compona exclusivamente de puertorriqueos.

     Los rebeldes juraron pblicamente defender la libertad de la patria. Se
aboli el injusto sistema se libretas de jornaleros y se declararon libres
los esclavos que tomaron las armas contra los espaoles. El sacerdote
Gumersindo Vega no de buena gana celebr un solemne tedum y frente al altar
mayor se despleg la bandera boricua confeccionada por Mariana Bracetti. Por
otra parte grupos de patriotas vigilaban las salidas del pueblo y ehortaban
a los propietarios a llevar a sus esclavos a la alcalda para declararles la
libertad.

     Durante la madrugada el General Rojas y su pequeo ejrcito avanzaron
hasta el Pepino (San Sebastin) pero ya los espaoles haban recibido
refuerzos de Puerto Rico, vivas que fueron contestadas por el tiroteo  de
los milicianos. Hubo varios encuentros entre milicianos y rebeldes, los que
tenian que retirarse del pueblo despus de cuatro horas de combate

Al llegar un contingente de
tropas veteranas espaolas que venan en ayuda del enemigo, Rojas trata de
regresar para hecerle frente pero muchos de sus hombres se niegan y se
decide volver a Lares a esperar noticias sobre los levantamientos en el
resto de la isla. Ya se haban muerto cuatro de ellos y algunos estaban
heridos. Entre los heridos figuraban Manuel Rosado «Manolo el Lareo» que
portaba una bandera blanca con una inscripcin patritica. Siete hombres
adems cayeron prisioneros. Los insurrectos de Lares se dispararon pronto
por las montaas tratando de ganar la costa para salir de la isla.

  

     Varias semanas dur la persecucin de los patriotas puertorriqueos por
los soldados espaoles. Centenares de ellos y de personas sospechosas para
el gobierno fueron apresados e ingresados en las crceles de Aguadilla,
Arecibo, Lares y Ponce.: alrededor de 80 murieron a causa de una epidemia de
vmito negro que se desarroll en las prisiones. Probablemente el nmero de
revolucionarios llegaba a 1,000 si bien oficialmente slo se consiguieron
454. Incluyendo muerto y exonerados. Entre los encarcelados estaban Rojas,
Ramrez Milln y Mariana Bracetti.

     Brugman, su hijo Henry, Baldomero Bauren y Bautista Toledo fueron
baleados en los campos de Adjuntas. Joaqun Parrilla fue sorprendido en el
barrio indiera de Yauco, entonces el oficial que acababa de matar diez 
de sus compaeros le pide que se rinda y Joaquin le responde «Joaqun
Parrilla no se rinde»  asi que tambin cay muerto, acribillado a
balazos. En la columna volante que persegua y capturaba a los insurrectos
de Lares figuraban Jos Gautier Bentez, el poeta, pero que fue soldado
voluntario en el ejrcito espaol y que estuvo realizando esa triste misin
entre el 26 de septiembre y el 8 de noviembre, segn consta en su rcord
militar que se guarda en el archivo militar de Segovia.


Trabajo realizado por: Hctor A. Garca


www.proyectosalonhogar.com

Lares conmemora los 154 años del Grito de Lares

“Será una semana llena de actividades culturales e históricas para toda la familia”

Periódico el Sol de PR

Lares,12 de septiembre de 2022El Municipio de Lares y su Honorable Alcalde, Fabián Arroyo Rodríguez anuncian las actividades que se celebrarán en el pueblo desde el próximo domingo 18 hasta el domingo 25 de septiembre por motivo de la conmemoración de los 154 años del Grito de Lares.

“Lares está lleno de historia y cultura, somos el único pueblo de la Isla que declaró la Independencia por más de 24 horas aquella noche del 23 de septiembre de 1868 y queremos que el mundo nos conozca” expresó el Alcalde, Fabián Arroyo Rodríguez.

La celebración este año durará, aproximadamente, una semana, comenzando el domingo 18 de septiembre con el tradicional maratón 10k “Grito de Lares”. Las inscripciones se llevarán a cabo el mismo día desde las 10:00 am hasta las 4:00 pm en la Plaza de la Revolución. Para más información se pueden comunicar al 787-897-0033 con el Departamento de Recreación y Deportes del Municipio de Lares. 

Por otro lado, el jueves, 22 de septiembre, el Centro Cultural “23 de Septiembre” presentará los documentales “Vida y obra de los revolucionarios Ramón Emeterio Betances y Mariana Bracetti” desde las 11:00 am.  A las 2:00 pm tendrá lugar el conversatorio “Grito de Lares” a cargo de los historiadores y profesores Alfredo González y Luis Serrano. La Dra. Carmen Arcelay Santiago presentará su libro “Gritar en Lares o españolizar la educación 1865-1880”. Luego, comenzando a las 5:00 pm, habrá música y trovadores lareños.

Ese mismo días, desde las 7:30 pm, se llevará a cabo la Obra teatral Grito de Lares “Un momento en la historia” dirigida por el actor lareño Jerry Segarra. Esta presenta los momentos durante la revolución llevada a cabo en Lares, la noche del 23 de septiembre de 1868. Contará con actores de renombre como Anamin Santiago, Joaquín Jarque, Luis Enrique Romero, Teófilo Torres, entre otros. Entrada libre de costo y se llevará a cabo en la Plaza de la Revolución y sus alrededores. 

La celebración continua el 23 de septiembre con los actos conmemorativos en la Plaza de la Revolución a cargo del Partido Nacionalista. Por otro lado, la Misa en conmemoración a la Gesta Patriótica del 23 de Septiembre estará a cargo de Mons. Álvaro Corrada Del Río, Administrador Apostólico, Diócesis de Arecibo y Ángel Luis Ríos Matos, Obispo de la Diócesis de Mayagüez. Esta se llevará a cabo en la Iglesia Catolica San Jose de la Montaña en el mismo pueblo y será transmitida en pantalla gigante en la Plaza de la Revolución.

El sábado 24 y domingo 25 de septiembre tendremos feria de Artesanías, música y gastronomía en la celebración del Festival “Grito de Lares”. Esta primera edición busca poder dar a conocer, a nuevas generaciones, la historia del Pueblo y a la vez aportar con el desarrollo económico, social y cultural de la Ciudad del Grito.

“Hemos contado con talento local, bandas, artistas y agrupaciones locales para fomentar lo de aquí, que el que nos visite conozca el talento de nuestra gente” añadió Arroyo Rodríguez.

La oferta musical comienza el sábado 24 de septiembre a las 2:00 pm con la banda Insomnia, seguido del conjunto bohemia en dos tiempos, banda filobiosis y cerrando con Makein. El domingo, 25 comenzamos con el Conjunto Criollo “Proyección boricua”, festival de Trovadores Lareños, El stand up de Maneco (Wilson Wilson) y cerrando con el “Jibarito de Lares” Odilio González.

“Lares es el pueblo de Mujeres hermosas, “Altar de la Patria”, Ciudad de Cielos Abiertos” pero sobre todo es la “Ciudad del Grito”. Esta gesta patriótica que se llevó a cabo en nuestro pueblo le corresponde a Lares y a todo Puerto Rico, pues aquella noche del 23 de septiembre de 1868 había personas de todas partes de la Isla. El Grito de Lares nos identifica a todos, por eso te invitamos a que visites a Lares el próximo 18, 22, 23, 24 y 25 de septiembre y seas parte de la historia” concluyó el Alcalde de Lares, Fabián Arroyo Rodríguez.

 

Grito de Lares — frwiki.wiki

The original flag of the Lares revolutionary movement.

EL Grito de Lares ( Scream of Lares ) — or other equivalent terms: Lares , Lares , Lares , even Revolution Lares — denotes an uprising directed against Spanish dominance in Plane -Rico, which took place on in the small town of Lares in the west of the island, during which the short-lived Republic of Puerto Rico was proclaimed.

The main instigators were Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Ramón Emeterio Betanses, members of the Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico, which had a large network of conspirators organized in cells on the island ( Junta ). The repressive policy of Spain and the deteriorating economic situation became the breeding ground for this.

For a number of reasons (failures with logistics, indiscretion that made the Spanish authorities alert, the shipment of weapons did not reach the rebels …), the uprising was unsuccessful, barely leaving the city of Lares and crushed a few days later by Spanish troops.

Nevertheless, the Grito de Lares was a significant event, primarily because of the political reforms it helped bring about and because of the place it continues to hold even today in the collective memory of Puerto Ricans.

Summary

  • 1 Riot sprouts
  • 2 Procedure

    • 2.1 Planning
    • 2.2 Proclamation of the Republic of Puerto Rico
    • 2. 3 Confrontation in San Sebastian
    • 2.4 Trial and amnesty
  • 3 reasons for failure
  • 4 Political implications
  • 5 Memorial value: Grito as a public holiday
  • 6 See also

    • 6.1 References

germs of rebellion

For several centuries, the Spanish crown ignored the economic and political demands of the Puerto Ricans. During the first half of the 19th — th centuries, the colony had a private view of its representation in the Cortes and the Spanish government of the island tended towards an increasingly despotic and repressive policy. Many activists, whether they were supporters of independence from Spain or simply called for democratic reforms, were imprisoned or sent into exile. In addition, local trade is burdened with new taxes, which, in addition, have increased control peninsula (people of Spanish descent) over the economy of Puerto Rico.

On the other hand, in 1855, the cholera epidemic, which severely affected slaves and day laborers, led to a serious shortage of agricultural workers. Also in 1867, two natural disasters further reduced the power endurance of Puerto Ricans: the first hurricane, San Narciso, and then, shortly after, a violent earthquake. With an intensity of 7.3 on the island on the Richter scale, and then a tidal wave that swept the southeastern part of the island.

Thus, famine, scarcity and poverty deepened people’s dissatisfaction with the government. The disease was so widespread throughout the island that no less than 73 revolutionary organizations were created in a short time.

At A week before the Grito de Lares and without the knowledge of the Puerto Rican rebels, Queen Isabella II was overthrown in Spain in an aristocratic uprising known as the Glorious Revolution ( Revolución Gloriosa ).

In Cuba, just a few weeks later, , the Grito de Yara(s) also broke out, beginning the Cuban War of Independence, known as the Ten Years. These events illustrate the discontent of the government of Queen Isabella II in the overseas territories of Spain.

Process

Planning

House of Manuel Rojas in 1965.

The Lares revolt, commonly referred to as the «Grito de Lares», took place in but was planned long before that date by a group led by Dr. Ramon Emeterio Betanses and Segundo jurist Ruiz Belvis, who founded , Puerto Rico Revolutionary Committee (Puerto Rico Revolutionary Committee) during their exile in the Dominican Republic (independent of Spain, in fact, since 1844). Bethans drafted several proclamations («Proclamas») that denounced the exploitation of Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system and called for an immediate uprising. These proclamations soon spread throughout the island as local splinter groups began to organize. Thanks to the care of Matthias Brugmann, Mariana Bracetti(s) and Manuel Rojas, secret cells (juntas) of the Revolutionary Committee were created in Puerto Rico, bringing together members from all walks of life — whether landowners, merchants, freelancers, peasants or slaves, the majority of which there were Criollos (that is, born on the island). The plight of the economy, combined with increasing Spanish-led repression, served as the catalyst for the uprising. The strongholds of the movement were the cities located in the mountains of the western part of the island.

According to the original plan, it was planned that the uprising would be unleashed in the city of Camuy, Puerto Rico, ; in fact, given that was a public holiday for most of the workers, the uprisings were expected to take place simultaneously, first in Kamui’s cell and then others in different places to follow. Reinforcements were to arrive aboard the ship « El Telegrafo , and the cells will be assisted by over 3,000 mercenaries. However, when the Spanish authorities on the island found out about this project, the rebels were forced to reschedule the date. Indeed, through carelessness, the information reached the ears of the Spanish captain stationed at Quebradillas, Juan Castañón, who alerted his superior at Arecibo. Based on this information, the leaders of cell Lanzador del Norte de Camuy were soon arrested and incriminating documents seized. The rest of the leaders, fearing arrest in their turn, decided to postpone the start of the revolution, without waiting for Betances. Then it was decided to strike first in the city of Lares out of .

At the same time, although the Dominican government, through General Luperon and President Buenaventura Báez, gave its support to Betances, allowing her to recruit and equip a small army and supplying her with an armed ship, the Spanish government received from President Báez when everything was ready for an expedition against the island, that he forbade the departure of expeditions from Dominican territory, and that the authorities of the neighboring island of St. Thomas, where the ship was moored, maintained this.

Proclamation of the Republic of Puerto Rico

However, said the day, about 400 to 600 rebels (according to the Spanish journalist José Pérez Moris the number is closer to 1000) gathered in the Manuel Rojas hacienda, located near the Pezuela(s), very close to the Lares. Poorly trained and poorly armed insurgents, moving on foot and on horseback, entered the city around midnight. They then proceeded to loot the shops and offices belonging to « peninsulares » (Spanish by origin) and took over the town hall. Spanish merchants and local government officials, whom the rebels considered enemies of their homeland, were taken prisoner. The revolutionaries urged the owners to bring their slaves to the town hall to free them. They then invested in the local church and unfurled a revolutionary flag, drawn and sewn by the activist Bracetti at the direction of Betanses, on the main altar to show that the revolution had begun. Finally, at 2 am, the Republic of Puerto Rico was proclaimed, presided over by Francisco Ramírez Medina. The revolutionaries offered freedom to the slaves who joined them.

Clash in San Sebastian

The rebel forces then resumed their journey to capture the next settlement, San Sebastian del Pepino. However, the group encountered unexpected resistance from the current Spanish militia. The great confusion that ensued in the ranks of the rebels prompted Manuel Rojas, who was in command, to retreat from Lares. On the orders of Governor Julian Pavia, the Spanish militia launched an offensive and shortly after a few days crushed the rebels and put an end to the rebellion.

Court and amnesty

General Juan Rius Rivera.

Some 475 rebels were imprisoned, including Manuel Rojas, Mariana Bracetti and Juan Rius Rivera(s) (the latter called to later become commander in chief of the Cuban Liberation Army).

At , a military tribunal sentenced all prisoners to death for treason and rebellion. However, in order to calm the already very tense atmosphere on the island, the newly appointed governor José Laureano Sanz (es) decided: general amnesty and all prisoners released. Meanwhile, 80 prisoners have already died while in custody.

Reasons for failure

Among these reasons, it is undoubtedly appropriate to point out, first of all, the excessive trust that characterized the revolutionaries and which led them to disclose information that went beyond the strict reservation allowing the authorities to know what was happening. It was these suspicions of the government, supported by accusations and infiltrations, that determined the need to postpone the date of the uprising. In particular, in the middle of 1868, Corregidor Don Antonio Balboa surprised Pedro Garcia’s agent in Mayagüez while the latter was busy raising funds for the cause by confiscating the list of donors and subscribers. To make matters worse, one of the conspirators, Hilario Martínez, forgot to make indiscreet revelations to his cousin Carlos Antonio López, who then handed them over to the militia captain of Quebradillas don Juan Castañón; these ‘s reckless actions pointed to cell Lanzador del Norte and revealed the identity of its president, Manuel María González. Castañon, in turn, informed Arecibo’s military commander, Don Manuel de Iturriaga, who at dawn raided Gonzalez’s house in Camuy, obtained incriminating documents, and then imprisoned Gonzalez in Arecibo prison. In addition, Iturriaga mobilized 50 militia from Arecibo and detached part of the Cadiz battalion in Camuy under the command of Captain José Pujols. News of González’s detention was passed on to the chairman of the cell of Lares and Capa Prieto de Mayaguez.

The following night (), the leadership of the Capa Prieto cell met at the house of Matthias Brugmann and an agreement was reached to move the date of the uprising to , instead of originally predicted. Lares and San Sebastian will be the first targets; Then come Moca, Quebradillas, Kamui and Arecibo. The rallying point of the rebel forces will be the hacienda of Manuel Rojas in the village of Pezuela, located one league from Lares. The other Chambers were informed of the decision and ordered to immediately comply with the orders to be sent to them. At the same time, we were well aware that we needed to act in an emergency situation, under the pressure of fear that the government would crush the rebellion even before it broke out.

Lares turned out to be the best place, having a good strategic location in a mountainous area in the center-west of the island, remote from the capital and difficult to access. The area attracted the largest number of participants and was located near Arecibo, where Manuel Maria Gonzalez was held captive. Lares was connected by road to San Sebastian, where the militia barracks were located with weapons and ammunition. Lares had good connections with Arecibo, San Germán, Yauco, Adjuntas(s) and Mayagüez. The time was not the best for the project. Indeed, circumstances forced the insurgents to move suddenly from the preparatory phase to the action phase. The weapons were confiscated by President Baez of the Dominican Republic and the ship chartered for transport was seized by the authorities of St. Thomas, then under Danish control, they could not have the necessary military equipment nor the people hired by Betanses to lend a hand to them. From Baez even tried to arrest and send Betans to Puerto Rico (remarkably, many years later, Spain offered Baez political asylum after he was overthrown in a revolutionary coup).

Some cells did not receive the Junta de Mayagüez order in time, while others did not receive it at all. Many members refrained from participating in the movement, discouraged by the arrest of Manuel María González.

Political implications

Although the uprising as such was unsuccessful, its results can generally be regarded as positive, as Spain agreed in later years to grant the island greater political autonomy.

The Spanish journalist José Pérez Morris wrote an important work against the Grito and its members, and this book, because it is based on such apparent hostility towards them, could be taken as an account of the events. The most reliable from a historical point of view View. On an ideological level, Pérez’s personal considerations continue, even to this day, to be widely used by opponents of Puerto Rican independence to denounce what they see as inappropriate glorification of a minor rebellion. However, newly released research suggests that the Grito had significantly more supporters — and that its logistics were more extensive inside Puerto Rico — than the length of the event would suggest. In the years immediately following Grito, there were minor pro-independence protests and skirmishes with the Spanish authorities in Las Marias, Ajuntas, Utuado, Vieques, Bayamón, Ciales and Toa Baja. Historians also emphasize the symptomatic length of comments Pérez compared to the place he allotted in his work for the simple fact ratio : if this event were a minor riot, which he assures about in the summer, he certainly would not have been the subject of such persistent negative treatment.

Memorial Significance: Grito as a public holiday

Lares Church and Monument Grito in the Plaza de la Revolucion.

The memory of the Grito de Lares has long been banned in Puerto Rico by both Spanish and American authorities. In particular, since any commemoration was prohibited until the formal end of Spanish rule over Puerto Rico in 1899, most Puerto Ricans had almost completely forgotten about Grito, and only the population of Lares organized small annual events to mark this event. However, separatist activists, notably José de Diego and Luis Llorenz Torres, tried to get the idea of ​​commemorating this event in the form of a public holiday accepted. De Diego, for example, demanded that he establish the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, which he proposed to the Puerto Rican legislature. , so it coincided with the Grito anniversary date.

In the late 1920s, members of the Puerto Rican National Party held small ceremonies in the city of Lares, both for historical commemorations and fundraising. When Pedro Albizu Campos (a) took over the leadership of the party, the «frivolous» events associated with the Grito (such as the annual fundraising dance) were discontinued and a number of rituals were developed to mark the occasion with dignity. One of the most famous quotes0007 Albizu reads : «Lares is holy ground, and therefore one should only enter it on one’s knees» ( Lares es Tierra Santa, y como tal, debe entrarse a ella de rodillas ).

A key element of the rituals associated with Grito is a donation made to the family of Albizu by the Chilean writer Gabriela Mistral, from a tamarind tree from Simon Bolivar’s property in Venezuela. The tree was planted in the Plaza de la Revolución from soil taken from eighteen other Hispanic countries in Latin America. Albizu intended to endow this place with a living symbol of solidarity in the struggle for freedom and independence initiated by Bolívar (who during his visit to the Puerto Rican island of Vieques promised to help the independence movement of Puerto Rico, but could not keep this promise due to the power struggle around him ), as well as a symbol of the bittersweet trials (like the fruit of a tree) that must be passed before achieving the independence of Puerto Rico. So Don Pedro’s Tamarindo wanted to be the twin of Guernicaco Arbola , the Tree of Liberty of the city of Guernica in the Spanish Basque Country.

In 1969, Luis A. Ferre, who was still in favor of Puerto Rico’s status as an associated state with the United States, but sought to take a different position, declared National Day. Lares has been classified as a historic site by the Puerto Rican Cultural Institute and is now recognized as the cradle of Puerto Rican nationalism.

See also

Recommendations

  • Moscoso, Francisco, La Revolución Portorriqueña of 1868: El Grito de Lares, Instituto de Cultura Portorriqueña , 2003.
  • Luis M. Diaz Soler, Puerto Rico: desde sus orígenes hasta el cese de la dominación española .
  • Grito de Lares.

Grito de Lares | this.

.. What is the Grito de Lares?

The flag of the rebels in 1868

Grito de Lares (Spanish Grito de Lares , in the lane Lares Creek ) — an uprising against Spanish colonial rule on the island of Puerto Rico, which took place on September 23, 1868 in the city of Lares.

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Uprising
  • 3 National holiday
  • 4 Gallery

Prehistory

From the middle of the 19th century, Spanish political and economic oppression intensified in Puerto Rico. Many supporters of the independence of the island and figures who demanded liberal reforms were arrested and sent into exile. Taxes and tariffs increased in Puerto Rico, the funds from which Spain needed to wage war upon the return of the Dominican Republic to its rule. In this regard, the indignation of the population grew in Puerto Rico, and supporters of the independence of the island began to plan an armed uprising.

Insurrection

On January 6, 1868, Ramon Emeterio Betanses and Segundo Raul Belvis, who were in exile in the Dominican Republic, create a revolutionary group called Puerto Rico Revolutionary Committee ( Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico ). Betanses drafted proclamations calling on Puerto Ricans to throw off the colonial yoke; these leaflets were widely distributed throughout the island and contributed to the organization of small groups of patriots in the field. In the same year, the famous Puerto Rican poet Lola Rodriguez de Tio writes a new, revolutionary text to the famous national melody (now the national anthem of Puerto Rico) La Borinqueña. The underground groups created included people of different property and social status — landowners, merchants, peasants and slaves, as a rule, Creoles by origin. The beginning of the uprising was accelerated by the economic crisis that broke out in Spain and its colonies. The center of unrest was the mountainous region in the west of the island.

Initially, the uprising was supposed to start on September 29 in the city of Kamuy. However, on the night of September 19, the captain of the Spanish troops, Juan Castañon, accidentally overheard a conversation between two conspirators discussing a plan of action — that the Spanish garrison had to be put out of action, as the rebels were going to poison their grain supplies, and then seize power in the city with the help of local workers . If necessary, the rebels were to be assisted by the warship Telegraph, which had joined the uprising, and 3,000 armed supporters. Having learned about everything, the Spanish authorities arrested the leadership of the revolutionary cell in Camuy.

After the initial plan failed, the revolutionaries decided to raise an uprising on September 24 in Lares. On this day, from 400 to 600 (according to other sources — about 1,000) conspirators gathered on the outskirts of this city. At night they occupied Lares, destroyed the shops and houses of the Spaniards who lived in the city and occupied the town hall. Having arrested the Spanish merchants and officials who were in the city, the rebels in the local church at 02:00 proclaimed the creation of an independent republic of Puerto Rico, with President Francisco Ramirez Medina at the head. All slaves who joined the revolution were declared free.

Coming out of the city, the armed detachments of the rebels went to the neighboring city of San Sebastian, but near this city they met with serious resistance from the Spanish garrison. Having suffered heavy losses, the rebels were forced to retreat back to Lares. By order of the Spanish governor of Puerto Rico, Julian Pavia, the city was surrounded by Spanish troops, who quickly crushed the resistance of the rebels there.

After the end of hostilities, about 475 rebels were arrested, including Manuel Rojas and the future commander of the Cuban Liberation Army, Juan Ruiz Rivera. On November 17, 1868, by decision of the military tribunal, all the arrested conspirators were sentenced to death. However, in order to defuse the tense political situation on the island, Governor José Laureano Sanz announced in 1869year of a general amnesty.

Despite the defeat of the 1868 uprising, the Spanish authorities were forced to grant Puerto Rico more internal autonomy. The city of Lares itself is considered to this day the cradle of Puerto Rican nationalism.

National holiday

After the defeat of the revolution and until 1899, the Spaniards were forbidden to celebrate the events of September 23, 1868 in Lares in any way. After the establishment of US power on the island, this day also remained in oblivion for a long time. Only at the end of 19In the 1920s, members of the nationalist parties and organizations in Puerto Rico began to celebrate in Lares with celebrations to commemorate the uprising. Later, large-scale events, festivals with festivities, national dances began to be held here. In 1969, on the centenary of the uprising, the governor of Puerto Rico, Luis A.

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