Los coquis: El Yunque National Forest — Nature & Science

The Coqui

The Eleutherodactylus as known by its zoological name, or Coqui as it is commonly called,
exceeds the creature itself in length. The genus Eleutherodactylus, with over
700 species, is probably the most speciose genus of vertebrates (Crother 1999).

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More than 17 different
species are endemic to the island, 13 of which occur in the
Caribbean National Forest. In 2007, a new species, the Coquí Llanero, was officially named Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi. Other species of this genus can be found around the
world: in the southern United States, Central and South America; and the Caribbean.

This little frog has only a minute tail when it is born, and this quickly disappears. Its length
ranges between 15mm-80mm and the color of the coquí varies considerably
— green, brown and yellowish, sometimes having touches of different colors or
two dorsolateral stripes.

The genera Eleutherodactylus, which in Greek means free toes. As the name
indicates, this genera has no inter digital membrane, which could indicate
that they are not adapted to swim. All coquies have disks or pads on the tips of their toes, to help
them adhere to surfaces, like moistened leaves.

Coquis reproduce year-round in Puerto Rico, but breeding activity is
concentrated in the wet season. This species utilizes internal fertilization
and like other eleutherodactylids, the fertilized eggs undergo direct
development, rather than passing through a free-living larval (tadpole) stage,
which means the parents don’t have to lay their eggs on water, as it happens
with other amphibians. The «tadpole» stage occurs entirely within a
terrestrial egg, rather than as a free-living larval stage, and adult
features form directly, sometimes bypassing the stages normally present in
tadpole ontogeny (Hung and Elinson 1996, Hanken et al. 1997). Thus, a tiny
but fully functional froglet hatches directly from the egg. Coquis deposit 4-6
clutches of about 28 eggs each (range 16-41) per year, with a development
period of 17-26 days. Males guard the eggs to keep them from drying out and
remain in the nest for a few days after they emerge.

The coquí is a very popular creature throughout the island and enlivens the
evenings with its timid ko-kee from which
it get its name. The coquies begin to sing when the sun goes down at dusk,
singing all night long until dawn. The male coquí sings, not the female.
You can find the coquí nearly everywhere, from the margins of
the forests where the areas receive large amounts of moisture, in highlands,
lowlands, dry and arid places, even in caves depending on the species.

The coquí has been a cultural symbol of Puerto Rican history for centuries.
Since the time of our native Taino inhabitants and its presence shown on many stone engravings to the present
and all the places and objects you will find this symbol represented. It has become a national symbol and an icon
for anything Puerto Rican. When Puerto Ricans want to express their nationality, they say: «Soy de aquí
como el coquí
» (I’m as Puerto Rican as a coquí).

Other Resources

  • Los Coquíes de
    Puerto Rico
  • Las Especies de Coquies de Puerto Rico


  • Coqui Y Sus
    Amigos: Los Animales De Puerto Rico

El Yunque National Forest — Nature & Science

Common Coqui (Eng.), Coquí Común (Sp.), Eleutherodactylus coqui (Sci.), native, Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra; introduced, US Virgin Islands, Hawaii, Dominican Republic.

Photo courtesy USDA Forest Service. Information compiled by Alan Mowbray, Interpretive Media Writer, EYNF/LEF

General Information

Class-Amphibia, Order-Anura, Family-Leptodactylidae, Genus-Eleutherodactylus, Species-coqui. Eleutherodactylus coqui is a tiny frog native to the islands of Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra. The Common Coqui gets its name from the unique nightime calling sound (ko-kee) made by the male of the species. It is the most abundant frog species in Puerto Rico with densities estimated at 20,000 individuals per Hectare. E. coqui is now an important symbol of Puerto Rico’s culture; it has become the unofficial “mascot” of the island’s people.


E. coqui can be easily recognized by its uniform color: mottled or freckled brown or grayish-brown. It may have a “W” shaped marking behind the nape of the neck, a chevron at the middle of the back and an externally concave line on each side. The thighs of E. coqui are generally a slightly darker shade of brown than the body and may have yellow-green mottling. Mature males average 1.3 inches (34 millimeters, while mature females average 1.6 inches (41 millimeters) ) in snout to vent length. The size differential between genders is believed to be related to the additional energy consumption of males during breeding activity. Like most Eleutherodactylus species, E. coqui has disks and pads at the tips of the toes and fingers which are web-less.


The Common Coqui is a generally nocturnal predator. Diet varies depending on individual age and size but is primarily composed of arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids). Young coquis consume smaller prey such as ants while adults consume a more varied diet that includes spiders, moths, crickets, snails and even smaller frogs. The male’s call is a loud “Ko-Kee” repeated frequently (CLICK HERE to hear recording)

They reproduce over the entire year but breeding activity peaks around the wet season. Females usually lay a “clutch” of 16 to 40 eggs from 4 to 6 times each year at roughly 8-week intervals. Eggs are guarded from predators such as snakes and snails, by males. The gestation period is from 17 to 26 days. E. coqui young reach maturity at approximately eight months.

Unlike many frog species that lay their eggs in water, coquís lay their eggs on the leaves of terrestrial trees or plants as well as in abandoned bird nests. Thus E.coqui reproduces without a direct dependency on water. Since eggs are laid on land, limbs are developed within the egg, rather than metamorphizing as larva in water. As the egg hatches, a fully formed froglet emerges; it has a small tail that is soon lost.


E. coqui is considered a habitat generalist, occurring in a wide range of habitats including mesic broad forests, mountains and in urban areas. It is found in epiphytic bromeliads, tree holes, and under rocks. Since the Common Coqui does not require a body of water to reproduce it is found at most altitudes where there is sufficient moisture for survival. On Puerto Rico and the offshore islands of Vieques and Culebra, they are found from sea level to a maximum of 3,900 feet (1,200 meters) while in Hawaii, where they were accidentally introduced as “hitchhikers” on imported plants, they have been found at a maximum of 3,800 feet (1,170 meters) elevation. Adults are generally found at higher altitudes than are juveniles.

Where to look for this animal in the EYNF

During the day, in bromeliads and under leaf litter near nature trails and visitor centers in the forest’s recreational area; in the early evening and just before dawn, listen to the males calling to prospective mates from tree limbs.


House Mouse  Feral Cat Antillean Euphonia

Common Coqui Puerto Rican Tanager Yellow River Goby

Black-Throated Blue Warbler Spinycheek Sleeper  Stripe-Headed Tanager

Theotima minutissimus  Locust Coqui  American Redstart

Alerts & Warnings

  • Partial closure for emergency work on PR-186

  • Cierre parcial por trabajos de emergencia en la PR-186

  • Bisley Road/Trail closed for construction works

  • Carretera/Vereda Bisley cerradas por trabajos de construcción

  • Rd 9938 Repairs — Closed to Vehicles / Pedestrian Access to Mt. Britton Trail

  • Reparaciones en Rd 9938 — Cerrado a vehículos / Acceso peatonal a Mt Britton

  • Main Recreation Area Open by Reservation

  • Principal Área Recreativa Abierta Por Reservación

  • COVID-19

View All Forest Alerts   

Publications / Bookmarks / bigjesus profile / Habr


Time to read
15 min

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Flant company blog Decentralized networks *Research and forecasts in IT *

Translation transl. : This defiant blockchain article was written and published about two years ago in Dutch. The other day it was translated into English, which caused a new surge of interest from an even larger IT community. Despite the fact that some figures have become outdated during this time, the essence that the author tried to convey has remained the same.

Blockchain will change everything: the transportation industry, the financial system, the government… in fact, perhaps it is easier to list the areas of our lives that it will not affect. At the same time, enthusiasm for it is often based on a lack of knowledge and understanding. Blockchain is a solution in search of a problem.

Sjoerd Knibbeler created this image for The Correspondent; the rest of the images in this article are part of the ‘Current Studies’ series (2013-2016), which you can read more about at the end of the article.

Read more →

Total votes 80: ↑73 and ↓7 +66



Time to read
13 min

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I don’t like CSS. It is simple and understandable. This is the driving force of the Internet, but it is too limited and difficult to manage. It’s time to clean up this language and make it more useful using dynamic CSS with LESS.
Let me explain my position with an example. Why not just use #FF9F94 to get a dark peach color and just store that color in a variable for later use? To recolor the site, it will be enough to change the value of the variable in just one place and that’s it.
In other words: it would be very elegant if we used a bit of programming and logic in CSS to make it a more powerful tool. The good thing is that this is all possible using LESS.

So what is LESS?

Total votes 161: ↑147 and ↓14 +133



Time to read
2 min

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From the sandbox

Good day, Habr!

I would like to tell you how I achieved a smooth change in the colors of the icons when you hover over them. This problem is common on Facebook. If the icon is a blue silhouette on a white background, then both colors are swapped when hovering over, and this happens instantly and looks a little sharp. My aesthetic sensibilities were hurt and I developed my own solution.

Having not seen anything similar on the Internet, I took it upon myself to call this method SITH (Soft Image Transition on: Hover) — smooth image transition on hover.

Under the habrakat you will find a complete description of the technique, all the code, a few screenshots and a link to the demo version.

Read more →

Total votes 140: ↑119 and ↓21 +98



Time to read
3 min



Project Management *


A friend and I decide to hike from San Francisco to Los Angeles to visit our friends in Newport Beach. Let’s look at the map and roughly estimate the path along the coast:

The path will take about 400 miles, we can walk 4 miles per hour for ten hours a day, so we will get there in about 10 days. We call friends and book a table for 6pm on Sunday.

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Total votes 278: ↑262 and ↓16 +246



Time to read
2 min



Website development *

Many ways to press the footer to the bottom edge of the window have already been invented and described, you just have to google it. But I want to share what I came to on my own (I had to invent, because there was no Internet at hand :)) …

Went the wrong way at first: the main DIV with the content is 100% height, and the header and footer are absolutely positioned. It looks normal in all browsers, but in IE6 a jamb got out — when changing content dynamically (via javascript), the footer remained in its place, i.e. did not follow the edge of the window. Therefore, I did this: a DIV with the main content, a DIV footer with a negative margin-top, a DIV header with absolute positioning. An obvious plus of this method was drawn: the main content of the page in the HTML code is as close as possible to the beginning of the document.

Further code and comments

Total votes 2: ↑0 and ↓2 -2



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2 min

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Greetings, dear Habr readers!
Cloud hosting in Russia is gaining momentum. But despite the fact that a lot has already been written and said about cloud hosting, it is best characterized by a phrase based on the well-known aphorism of Francois de La Rochefoucauld: “Everyone talks about it, but few have seen it.” We, in turn, follow the good tradition of “keeping up with the times”, responding in a timely manner to customer needs and market trends (at one time, ISPserver was at the forefront of the emergence and development of a new trend in the field of hosting — the technology of virtual dedicated servers VDS / VPS ) launched the Cloud Hosting service. We invite you to try cloud hosting with us and evaluate all its advantages yourself.

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Total votes 44: ↑31 and ↓13 +18



Time to read
8 min

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If your computer has 2 video outputs and you want to connect 3 monitors, then with some probability you won’t be able to do it simply by adding a second video card — not all motherboards have 2 PCI Express X16 slots , and regular-sized video cards will not fit into numerous PCI Express X1 slots due to connector incompatibility. Not everyone knows that it is actually possible to install a long X16 connector in a short slot, so it is not necessary to buy another and more expensive motherboard for the 3rd monitor. This article is devoted to ways to expand the potential capabilities of a computer, and it also dispels doubts and fears that something will not work when finalizing the board with a file. An hour of work — and the 3rd monitor will be connected to your system.

Read longer

Total votes 118: ↑111 and ↓7 +104



Time to read
1 min

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Webprojects company blog

After processing 166 applications, we received a shortlist of 15 items. Today we are ready to announce the top five winners selected by a collegial vote.

(our winners don’t have such problems)

Let’s not indulge in lyrical digressions. Here are the sites.

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Total votes 57: ↑42 and ↓15 +27



Time to read
8 min

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I’m doing PR

This is my third meeting with a representative of the TOP-studio Runet for the interest of working with the regions. The topic is becoming more and more acute, and the opinions of opponents are more and more interesting and justified. This time I met with Mikhail Tokovinin, the head of QSOFT. Mikhail spoke about his experience of working with the regions and made several statements that make you think.

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Total votes 68: ↑47 and ↓21 +26


Sri Lanka Love Cake — Recipes

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Today we are heading to Sri Lanka for 0228! A cake for people who love and celebrate Valentine’s Day, but that’s how they can love first at the table.

The person who makes you feel butterflies in your stomach, who makes you smile, or makes you fly three feet off the ground, will also have to cook this love cake for you! A cake with wonderful ingredients, showing that nothing in the world is more important than love and love!

Love… Every recipe hides a secret! This secret is called love! Cooking and cooking training is much more than a recipe: she also gives and makes everything from the heart!

A few centuries ago, when the Portuguese ruled over the small island of Ceylon, a cake called love cake was born. But before we talk about love cake, let’s talk about the history and culture of Sri Lanka.

A Brief History of Sri Lanka

When the Portuguese arrived on the island in 1505, and since there were no women in the Portuguese army, they married Sinhalese and Tamils ​​from the country’s two largest ethnic groups. It should be noted that this practice of intermarriage with the local population was encouraged by the Portuguese not only in Ceylon, but also in other Portuguese colonies, such as Batavia in Indonesia, Macao in China, Malacca in Malaysia or Goa in India.

When the Dutch took Ceylon in 1653, they expelled all the Portuguese. It was not until 1802 that the British colonized Ceylon until February 4, 1948, the date of the island’s independence.

The children born of these mixed marriages were hamburgers. The term bourgeois comes from the Dutch word hamburger, which means «citizen» or «city dweller», and refers to the French word «bourgeois».

Bourgeois introduced to Sri Lanka a range of products and dishes that have become an integral part of Sri Lankan cuisine. Love cake is one of them, just like kokis , Frikkadels (baked meatballs), a traditional Christmas cake (fruit cake) and lamprais (curry wrapped and cooked in a banana leaf), just to name a few.

What is the origin of love cake?

Love Pie dates back to at least the 15th century and was founded by the Portuguese who controlled most of Sri Lanka for over a century. Love cake is probably of Portuguese origin due to one of its most important ingredients: Puhul Dosi a variety of candied pumpkin related to the famous Portuguese pumpkin called chila twelve ,

The beauty of cuisine is that there is always the opportunity to discover new flavors and marvel at new ingredients and surprising combinations. My new taste, my discovery of the day is called Pukhul Dosi in Sinhala.

What is winter melon?

After all, if carrots can be used in an Indian dessert like Ghajar ka halva or the famous American carrot cake; if pumpkin could be the star ingredient in an American pumpkin pie or pampoenkokies from South Africa, why not beat it up in Sri Lanka?

Also known as winter melon, this is an annual plant native to Malaysia and is related to pumpkin, melon and cucumber. Pukhul dosi, the famous candied winter melon, is also prepared from this ingredient.

In Sri Lanka, winter melon is called alu pukhul in Sinhalese. You will find this cultivar anywhere in the world, and if you don’t find one named alu puhul, don’t panic! Also called «white squash», Kashiphal or safha petha (Hindu), Pushnikai (Tamil) or dong gua (Chinese).

Most cooks buy ready-made poohul dosi from stores. Unfortunately, even though you can find this winter melon very easily all over the world, it will sometimes be difficult to find pukhul dosa in some countries. Don’t panic there either! You will find the recipe for Pukhul Dosi on many websites and it is very easy to make.

Where does the name of the love cake come from?

This cake is said to have been made by Sinhalese and Tamil women to win the hearts of rivals, and like love, it is delightfully sweet, fragrant, spicy and slightly intoxicating. Created from a simple and unpretentious Portuguese recipe, the love cake has lived its life in Sri Lanka, with fruits, cashews and spices from the island, and aromas of rose and citrus water thanks to the Arab influence of the region,

How to make a love cake

A standard and traditional love cake recipe consists of almost equal amounts of butter, sugar and cashews, lots of eggs, and lots of candied fruit, essences, spices and honey. Cashew gives it a delicious taste and unexpected melting texture. The same cashew is the main ingredient of Bolo Polana this cake from Mozambique, which is also of Portuguese origin.

The secret of a love cake’s success is the moisture it must keep inside. Don’t let it dry.

And speaking of love, love cake is traditionally prepared primarily for weddings, and sometimes for special occasions such as birthdays or anniversaries.

Sri Lanka will tell you that a love cake can last a year or more in an airtight box, but at my table it had a very short life. I made this for dessert for dinner with friends. They were all as curious as I was and we ate everything on the spot! It was definitely love at first sight!

Valentine’s Day sweet, the celebration of love, is perfect for this recipe! Happy Valentine’s Day and on any day of the year, do not stop believing in love!

This recipe is approved by our Sri Lankan Culinary Chef Nice. Chef Nice is the owner of the Apey Kade restaurant in the Los Angeles area.

I love cake

Love Pie is a traditional Sri Lankan pie made from cashew nuts, grits and candied winter melon called pukhul dosi. Aroma with rose, cinnamon, cardamom with lime and nutmeg.

Course: Dessert

Cuisine: Asian, Sri Lankan, Vegetarian

Number of servings: 12 people.

Author: Vera Abitball


  • 1½ cup of fine mannered cereal
  • 6 large eggs
  • 1 glass of sugar powder
  • 4 tablespoons of liquid honey 900 900 3 cups of cups. tablespoons rose water
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • ½ teaspoon ground cardamom
  • Ground teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 8 oz. Cleake of coarse grinding
  • 3 ounces of the fucker dosi (sugared winter melon), cut into cubes
  • 1 tablespoon of the zest lime


  1. Warm up to 300 f and align the 8-inch square pepper with Permanum.

  2. Fry fine semolina in a dry skillet without stirring or coloring.

  3. While the semolina is still hot, add the oil and mix well until the oil melts and blends into the semolina. Set aside.

  4. Separate the eggs.

  5. In a large bowl or on a stand mixer, beat the egg yolks and sugar until the mixture is blanched and has doubled in volume.

  6. Add lime zest, honey, spices, rose water, almond extract and mix well.

  7. Add ground cashews and pufful dosi and mix well.

  8. Add the semolina-oil mixture and combine with a spatula without beating.

  9. In another bowl, or in the bowl of a stand mixer, beat the egg whites until stiff.

  10. Carefully add the egg whites to the previous preparation and mix everything without beating.

  11. Pour the mixture into the mold and lightly tap it on the work surface two or three times to remove air bubbles.

  12. Bake for 1 hour 20 minutes.

  13. Let the cake cool completely before cutting into squares and serving.

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